EL ORO NEGRO (The Black Gold)

Good for another 200 years of oil extraction

image of EL ORO NEGRO (The Black Gold)
  • By H. van Kasteel
  • Format: EPUB
  • Publication Year: 2014
  • Number of Pages: 300
  • Language: English
  • Ebook ISBN: 9789462820029

There has never been a lack of oil in the world. By using advanced extraction methods and with higher oil prices, economically accessible reserves are increasing. Because of the new technologies, which I discuss in detail in this book, these reserves continue to increase. Up to now, an average of 20 to 30% of the original oil present in the ground is recoverable. This percentage could rise to 50 to 60%. Production from structures that were previously unproductive is now and continues to become possible. This will lead to hundreds more years of oil extraction.
This book is about oil. But gas reserves (the invisible gold) have also increased sharply, in part due to new technologies, and have more than doubled since 1980 with an average increase of 3% per year. This will provide 253 years of production at current production levels.
It should also be mentioned that this doesn’t take into account new future discoveries and adjusted reserves, which there are sure to be.

Table of Contents

General disclaimer


1 Introduction

1.1 The original sources: Seepages
1.2 “Colonel” Edwin L. Drake
1.3 Oil extraction at the end of 19th century
1.4 John D. Rockefeller
1.4.1 Esso

2 The origin of oil and gas and how to find it
2.1 Oil is a marine deposit; gas is a land deposit
2.2 Igneous and sedimentary rock
2.3 Oil and gas accumulations

3 Geology in a nutshell
3.1 The geological time scale
3.2 Plate tectonics
3.3 Storegga tsunami floods North Netherlands
3.4 Geological map of the Netherlands

4 Reserves
4.2 Gas: the invisible gold
4.3 Strategic oil reserves

5 The facts
5.1 Oil production
5.2 The oil pyramid
5.3 Number of drilling installations
5.4 The offshore fleet

6 The “Seven Sisters” (1940 – 1970)
6.1 H. Deterding (“Sir Henry”)
6.1.1 The 60%/40% deal between Deterding (Koninklijke) and Samuel (Shell)
6.2 OPEC (1960 – present)
6.3 The Club of Rome (1968 – present)
6.4 The International Energy Agency (IEA)
6.5 Stichting Peakoil Nederland (Netherlands Peak Oil Foundation) (2004 – present)

7 The marriage between two sisters
7.1 The Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM)
7.1.1 The BPM oil technical school
7.2 Schoonebeek
7.3 Groningen
7.4 Ground subsidence and earthquakes in the Groningen gas field

8 Drilling operations
8.1 The drilling crew
8.2 The drill floor
8.3 Drilling
8.4 The drilling fluid (mud)
8.5 The blowout
8.6 Oilfield firefighter “Red” Adair
8.7 Cementing
8.8 Developments in drilling techniques
8.9 Multi-Well-Pad Drilling
8.10 Pad drilling leads way (Specialised “Fit-For-Purpose” drilling installations)

9 Production
9.1 Primary extraction methods
9.1.1 Flowing well
9.1.2 Gas lift well
9.1.3 The pumping well
9.2 Production operations
9.3 Secondary extraction methods
9.3.1 The test period 1956-1966
9.3.2 Canada
9.3.3 Venezuela
9.3.4 Schoonebeek
9.4 The tertiary extraction methods
9.4.1 CO2 injection results in higher oil production
9.4.2 Underground combustion
9.4.3 Pilot test with electrical electrodes
9.5 The current and future world oil and LNG productions

10 Other energy sources
10.1 Lignite and coal
10.2 Synthetic fuel from lignite, coal and gas
10.3 The wind
10.4 Solar energy
10.5 Hydropower
10.6 Geothermal energy
10.7 Nuclear energy
10.8 Phasing out fossil fuels (as soon as 20 to 40 years from now?)

11 Offshore
11.1 The continental shelf
11.1.1 North Sea
11.1.2 Piper Alpha
11.2 The Gulf of Mexico
11.2.1 Katrina in the Gulf of Mexico
11.3 East coast of Brazil
11.3.1 The sinking of the Petrobras P-36
11.4 West coast of Africa
11.4.1 The Mighty Servant 3
11.5 Another offshore oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico

12 Peak oil and mega finds

13 The oil price
13.1 Influence of OPEC on the oil price
13.2 Production

14 L’Addition
14.1 The estimates
14.2 Classic development of an oilfield
14.3 Gas-to-liquids. The LNG phenomenon
14.4 Bio-to-liquids
14.5 Recoverable reserves
14.6 Enough oil for 200 years
14.7 Shale
14.7.1 Oil shale, the future for oil consumers
14.7.2 Development of the Bakken Shale oilfield in the USA
14.7.3 Shale gas
14.8 Gas from methane hydrate

15 Important dates in oil history

16 A few more things
16.1 Literature consulted
16.2 Commonly used units and dimensions in the oil and gas industry


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