From Seismic Interpretation to Modelling and Assessment of Oil and Gas Fields

image of From Seismic Interpretation to Modelling and Assessment of Oil and Gas Fields
  • By Yury P. Ampilov
  • Format: EPUB
  • Publication Year: 2010
  • Number of Pages: 274
  • Language: English
  • Ebook ISBN: 9789462820050

In this publication the author pays special attention to the cross-disciplinary problems of the geosciences: seismic processing and interpretation, geological and hydrodynamic modelling and he analyses the contradictions of the applied methods. The author states that narrow specialization in geosciences has hindered unbiased subsurface investigation. There is a need for new specialists who are able to integrate knowledge from the different fields.
The book provides critical but unbiased analysis of the interpretation possibilities of seismic exploration when forecasting rock properties. Moreover, compared to the Russian version, this edition gives a more extended analysis of seismic inversion algorithms. This book will be useful for geologists, geophysicists, engineers involved in the development of hydrocarbon fields and other, cross-disciplinary specialists.

Table of Contents

A Word to the Reader

1. Seismic Reflection Method – Foundation of Subsurface Structure Remote Sensing

1.1. Was the CDP method a revolution in seismology?
1.2. What May Remain In the Seismic Time Section After All Processing Procedures have been Applied?
1.3. Basic Concepts of Modern Seismic Processing Flow
1.4. What Is the Best Route from Time to Depth?
1.5. Inverse Amplitude Problem – Are There Too Many Unsatisfiable Conditions?
1.6. The Legend of Convolution and Acoustic Impedance
1.7. Seismic Inversions: Door to the Truth?
1.8. Calculating the Absorption Parameters of Reflected Waves
1.9. Calculation of scattering characteristics of seismic waves by CDP gathers
1.10. Attributes of Hilbert Transform
1.11. Modelling Seismic Attributes in the Simplest Thin-Layer Media Case
1.12. AVO-attributes: Phenomenon or Myth?
1.13. Seismic Facies: Fantasy and Reality
1.14. Seismic-based Tracing of Tectonic Faults
1.15. Fracture Assessment on the Seismic Data: Desirable or Real?
1.16. Shear and Converted Waves in Seismic Surveys: Expectations and Challenges
1.17 Some Specialists Claim That Seismics Provide the Reliable Assessment of Abnormally Pressured Zones Distribution
1.18. Does 3D Seismology Always Provide a Considerable Gain in Comparison With 2D?
1.19. Sometimes, one can try to evaluate velocities by the features of amplitude versus time drop

2. Principles of Multidimensional Analysis of Seismic Attributes
2.1. One Attribute is Good but Ten are Better
2.2 Representation of Geological and Geophysical Data for Digital Analysis
2.3. Factor Analysis: Decreasing the “Dimensionality of Attributes Space”
2.4. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis: Recognizing Classes and Sub-classes in the Wavefield Without Training
2.5. Multi-dimensional Regression and Cluster Analysis “With Training” Shows Great Promise
2.6. Combined Technology of Factor and Supervised Cluster Analysis for Rock Types Classification over the Seismic Time Sections
2.7. Neural-like Algorithms of Multi-Dimensional Attribute Analysis
2.8 More Examples of Application of the Various Multi-attribute Analysis Methods for Solving Different Geological Problems
2.9. Software System for Seismic Attributes Interpretation ATTRCAR
2.10. Comparison of Alternative Methods of Multi-Attribute Analysis
2.11. The New Sight of Seismic Facies through the Perspective of Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Seismic Attributes
2.12. Is Everything So Fine With Seismic Attributes?
2.13. Seismic Inversion Revisited
2.13.1 Inversion: Problem Statement and Ways of Solution
2.13.2 Preparation of Input Data
2.13.3. Acoustic Case: Inversion of Full-Fold Stacks
2.13.4. Elastic Case: Inversion of Partial Stacks

3. Geological Modelling and Oil & Gas Reserves Assessment with the Use of the CMP Seismic Method
3.1. What is meant by Geological Modelling?
3.2. Key Components of the Process of Building a Geological Model
3.3. Obtaining Structural Frame from Seismics
3.4. Resolution of Seismics and Level of Detail of the Field Geological Model
3.5. Prediction of Reservoir Parameters by Seismic Data and Incorporating Them into the Geological Model
3.6. Application of Geostatistics in Geological Modelling
3.7. What is the Way to Estimate Oil and Gas Reserves?
3.8. Overview of Categories of Hydrocarbons Resources and Reserves. How Long Will it Take to Move to the New Classification System?
3.9. Why Should We Have to Approve Reserves in SRC? What Should We Use to Build Geological Models?
3.10. About the Accuracy of Reserves Assessment and Place of Probabilistic Estimates
3.11. A Bit of Errors Statistics in Reserves Assessment
3.12. How Did We Build the Model of the Famous Schtockman?

4. From Geological Model to Field Production Potential and Reservoir Engineering
4.1. Basic Concepts of Field Hydrodynamic Model
4.2. Principles of Estimation of Oil and Gas Fields Performance
4.2.1. Principles of Estimation of Oilfield Performance
4.2.2. Principles of Estimation of Gas Field Performance
4.3. Estimation of Production Parameters for Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Context of Raw Data Uncertainty

5. Geological and Economic Modelling: Feasibility Study of Further Exploration and Development
5.1. How Long Should We Explore? Until all the Money Has Been Spent?
5.2. Subsurface: Subject of Cost Valuation
5.3. Hydrocarbons of Commercial Categories: Methodology of Preparation with the Use of Seismics
5.4. Exploration and Development of the Hydrocarbon Field: Main Aspects of Financial Viability
5.4.1. The concept of discounting
5.4.2. Accidence of theory of cash flows
5.4.3. Assessment of investment projects: static and dynamic methods
5.5. Cash flow in the engineering design of oil and gas exploration, prospecting and development: conceptual model
5.6. Creating a simple program for the estimation of “ple program for the estimation of economic efficiency parameters in MS Excel
5.7. Decision making according to economic indicators: major criteria
5.7.1. Estimate of economically allowable value of initial payment for the right of use of a subsurface site
5.7.2. «E&P margin» as reasonability indicator for further E&P works
5.7.3. Technical and economical feasibility study of oil and gas recovery efficiency
5.8. Risk and uncertainty analysis at economic appraisal
5.8.1. Types of risks in geological and economic estimates
5.8.2. The main ways to deal with uncertainty and risk
5.9. Ranking economic appeal of objects intended for further exploration

6. What is coming? (unsolved problems and further prospects for the methodology of hydrocarbon fields research)
6.1. Seismics: crisis or progressive advance?
6.2. Problems in building fields’ geological engineering models: how to solve them?
6.3. Geological and economic modelling and subsurface cost estimate: have all issues been addressed?
6.4. Will we assemble the parts into a united technological chain?





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