1887
Volume 20, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 1569-4445
  • E-ISSN: 1873-0604
PDF

Abstract

ABSTRACT

River embankments are earthen structures constructed to protect areas from flooding. If a river embankment collapses, it can cause major damage to human lives; therefore, proper inspection and evaluation are essential to determine the problem areas in river embankments, and repair them if necessary, before any damage occurs. Electrical surveys are a reliable method that has been used widely. Recently, electrical surveys have been used to inspect long structures such as river embankments, highlighting the need for developing non‐destructive and less fieldwork electrical survey methods. In this study, we examined a direct current electrical exploration system using polyvinyl alcohol sponge roller electrodes, which are non‐destructive and can be moved smoothly without damaging the ground surface. We conducted initial experiments on a test ground in which this new system was towed by an unmanned ground vehicle to perform an electrical survey and compared the results with those obtained using conventional methods that utilize stainless steel electrodes driven into the ground. The results indicate that the direct current electrical survey using the polyvinyl alcohol electrodes yielded almost the same results as those obtained using the stainless steel electrodes. In addition, both methods were tested on a river embankment to investigate the effectiveness of the towed direct current electrical survey. We confirmed that the towed survey method was effective by comparing the resistivity cross‐sections and fieldwork required for both survey types.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12202
2022-05-20
2022-06-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/nsg/20/3/nsg12202.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12202&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Andrenelli, M.C., Magini, S., Pellegrini, S., Perria, R., Vignozzi, N. and Costantini, E.A.C. (2013) The use of the ARP© system to reduce the costs of soil survey for precision viticulture. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 99, 24–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2013.09.012
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bentley, L.R. and Gharibi, M. (2004) Two‐ and three‐dimensional electrical resistivity imaging at a heterogeneous remediation site. Geophysics, 69(3), 674–680. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1759453
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Borgatti, L., Forte, E., Mocnik, A., Zambrini, R., Cervi, F., Martinucci, D., et al. (2017) Detection and characterization of animal burrows within river embankments by means of coupled remote sensing and geophysical techniques: lessons from river Panaro (northern Italy). Engineering Geology, 226(May), 277–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2017.06.017
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Busato, L., Boaga, J., Peruzzo, L., Himi, M., Cola, S., Bersan, S. and Cassiani, G. (2016) Combined geophysical surveys for the characterization of a reconstructed river embankment. Engineering Geology, 211, 74–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.06.023
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Comina, C., Vagnon, F., Arato, A., Fantini, F. and Naldi, M. (2020) A new electric streamer for the characterization of river embankments. Engineering Geology, 276(May), 105770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2020.105770
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dabas, M. (2008) Theory and practice of the new fast electrical imaging system ARP©. In Seeing the Unseen: Geophysics and Landscape Archaeology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 105–126.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Grard, R. and Tabbagh, A. (1991) A mobile four‐electrode array and its application to the electrical survey of planetary grounds at shallow depths. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96(B3), 4117–4123. https://doi.org/10.1029/90JB02329
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Guerrero, O., Lataste, J.F. and Marache, A. (2016) High sampling rate measurement and data treatment for mobile investigations: kinematic electrical resistivity tomography (KERT). Geoderma, 284, 22–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.08.007
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hayashi, K., Inazaki, T., Kitao, K. and Kita, T. (2013) Statistical estimation of soil type using cross‐plots of S‐wave velocity and resistivity in Japanese levees. 26th Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 2013, SAGEEP, 2013, 52–61. https://doi.org/10.4133/sageep2013‐027.1
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hayley, K., Bentley, L.R., Gharibi, M. and Nightingale, M. (2007) Low temperature dependence of electrical resistivity: implications for near surface geophysical monitoring. Geophysical Research Letters, 34(18), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031124
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ibaraki Prefecture (2021) Rainfall and river water level information, http://www.kasen.pref.ibaraki.jp/pc/main.html?fnm=openTable&no=2&no2=0&sct=m2_2. Accessed on 30 September 2021. (in Japanese)
  12. Inoue, K., Nakazato, H., Kubota, T., Takeuchi, M., Sugimoto, Y., Kim, H.J. and Furue, K. (2017) Three‐dimensional inversion of in‐line resistivity data for monitoring a groundwater recharge experiment in a pyroclastic plateau. Exploration Geophysics, 48(3), 332–343. https://doi.org/10.1071/EG16035
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Itsukushima, R. (2018) Countermeasures against floods that exceed design levels based on topographical and historical analyses of the September 2015 Kinu River flooding. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 19(October), 211–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2018.10.001
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jinguuji, M. and Yokota, T. (2021) Investigating soil conditions around buried water pipelines using VLF‐AC electrical resistivity survey. Near Surface Geophysics, https://doi.org/10.1002/nsg.12191
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Jodry, C., Palma Lopes, S., Fargier, Y., Sanchez, M. and Côte, P. (2019) 2D‐ERT monitoring of soil moisture seasonal behaviour in a river levee: a case study. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 167, 140–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2019.05.008
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kuras, O., Beamish, D., Meldrum, P.I. and Ogilvy, R.D. (2006) Fundamentals of the capacitive resistivity technique. Geophysics, 71(3), G135. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2194892
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (2012) Guidelines for detailed inspection of embankments around structures such as flumes. https://www.mlit.go.jp/river/shishin_guideline/kasen/pdf/03_himon_tenkenyoukou.pdf. Accessed on 30 September 2021. (in Japanese)
  18. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (2019) Guidelines for inspection and evaluation of river management facilities such as embankments and river channels. https://www.mlit.go.jp/river/shishin_guideline/kasen/pdf/01_teibou_tenkenhyouka_youryou.pdf. Accessed on 30 September 2021. (in Japanese)
  19. National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (2008) Historical agro‐environment browsing system. https://habs.rad.naro.go.jp/. Accessed on 24 January 2022. (in Japanese)
  20. Nthaba, B., Shemang, E.M., Atekwana, E.A. and Selepeng, A.T. (2020) Investigating the earth fill embankment of the Lotsane dam for internal defects using time‐lapse resistivity imaging and frequency domain electromagnetics. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 25(3), 325–339. https://doi.org/10.32389/JEEG19‐057
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Orlandini, S., Moretti, G. and Albertson, J.D. (2015) Evidence of an emerging levee failure mechanism causing disastrous floods in Italy. Water Resources Research, 51(10), 7995–8011. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR017426
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Rahimi, S., Wood, C.M., Coker, F., Moody, T., Bernhardt‐Barry, M. and Mofarraj Kouchaki, B. (2018) The combined use of MASW and resistivity surveys for levee assessment: a case study of the Melvin price reach of the wood river levee. Engineering Geology, 241(May), 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2018.05.009
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rejkjær, S., Finco, C., Schamper, C., Rejiba, F., Tabbagh, A., König, J. and Dahlin, T. (2021) Determination of the resistivity distribution along underground pipes in urban contexts using galvanic and capacitive methods. Near Surface Geophysics, 19(1), 27–41. https://doi.org/10.1002/nsg.12135
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Robinson, J.D. and Vahedifard, F. (2016) Weakening mechanisms imposed on California's levees under multiyear extreme drought. Climatic Change, 137(1–2), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584‐016‐1649‐6
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Sentenac, P., Benes, V. and Keenan, H. (2018) Reservoir assessment using non‐invasive geophysical techniques. Environmental Earth Sciences, 77(7), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665‐018‐7463‐x
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sentenac, P., Jones, G., Zielinski, M. and Tarantino, A. (2013) An approach for the geophysical assessment of fissuring of estuary and river flood embankments: validation against two case studies in England and Scotland. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69(6), 1939–1949. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665‐012‐2026‐z
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Sjödahl, P., Dahlin, T., Johansson, S. and Loke, M.H. (2008) Resistivity monitoring for leakage and internal erosion detection at Hällby embankment dam. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 65(3–4), 155–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2008.07.003
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tabbagh, A. and Panissod, C. (2000) 1D complete calculation for electrostatic soundings interpretation. Geophysical Prospecting, 48(3), 511–520. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365‐2478.2000.00189.x
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Takenaka, J. (1919) Ibaraki prefecture Nagaido‐Numa reclamation project. The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 22, 1–12. (in Japanese)
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tresoldi, G., Arosio, D., Hojat, A., Longoni, L., Papini, M. and Zanzi, L. (2019) Long‐term hydrogeophysical monitoring of the internal conditions of river levees. Engineering Geology, 259(May), 105139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2019.05.016
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12202
Loading
/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12202
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Electrical; Electrode; Embankment; Non‐destructive; Resistivity
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error