1887
Volume 21, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 1569-4445
  • E-ISSN: 1873-0604
PDF

Abstract

Abstract

Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has seen increased use in the monitoring the condition of river embankments, due to its spatial subsurface coverage, sensitivity to changes in internal states, such as moisture content, and ability to identify seepage and other erosional process with time‐lapse ERT. Two‐dimensional ERT surveys are commonly used due to time and site constraints, but they are often sensitive to features of anomalous resistivity proximal to the survey line, which can distort the resultant inversion as a three‐dimensional (3D) effect. In a tidal embankment, these 3D effects may result from changing water levels and river water salinities. ERT monitoring data at Hadleigh Marsh, UK, showed potential evidence of 3D effects from local water bodies. Synthetic modelling was used to quantify potential 3D effects on tidal embankments. The modelling shows that a 3D effect in a tidal environment occurs (for the geometries studied) when surveys are undertaken at high water levels and at distances less than 4.5 m from the electrode array with 1 m spacing. The 3D effect in the modelling is enhanced in brackish waters, which are common in tidal environments, and with larger electrode spacing. Different geologies, river water compositions, and proximities to the model parameters are expected to induce a varied 3D effect on the ERT data in terms of magnitude, and these should be considered when surveying to minimize artefacts in the data. This research highlights the importance of appropriate geoelectrical measurement design for tidal embankment characterization, particularly with proximal and saline water bodies.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12234
2023-01-18
2023-01-27
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/nsg/21/1/nsg12234.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12234&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Almog, E., Kelham, P. & King, R. (2011) Modes of dam failure and monitoring and measuring techniques. Bristol, UK: Environment Agency.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Amabile, A., de Carvalho Faria Lima Lopes, B., Pozzato, A., Benes, V. & Tarantino, A. (2020) An assessment of ERT as a method to monitor water content regime in flood embankments: The case study of the Adige River embankment. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 120, 102930. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2020.102930
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bersan, S., Koelewijn, A. & Simonini, P. (2018) Effectiveness of distributed temperature measurements for early detection of piping in river embankments. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 22(2), 1491–1508. https://doi.org/10.5194/hess‐22‐1491‐2018
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bièvre, G., Oxarango, L., Günther, T., Goutaland, D. & Massardi, M. (2018) Improvement of 2D ERT measurements conducted along a small earth‐filled dyke using 3D topographic data and 3D computation of geometric factors. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 153, 100–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2018.04.012
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Binley, A. & Slater, L. (2020) Resistivity and Induced Polarization: Theory and Applications to the Near‐Surface Earth. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108685955
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Blanchy, G., Saneiyan, S., Boyd, J., McLachlan, P. & Binley, A. (2020) ResIPy, an intuitive open source software for complex geoelectrical inversion/modeling. Computers and Geosciences, 137, 104423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2020.104423
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Borgatti, L., Forte, E., Mocnik, A., Zambrini, R., Cervi, F., Martinucci, D. et al. (2017) Detection and characterization of animal burrows within river embankments by means of coupled remote sensing and geophysical techniques: lessons from River Panaro (northern Italy). Engineering Geology, 226, 277–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2017.06.017
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Brand, J.H. & Spencer, K.L. (2019) Potential contamination of the coastal zone by eroding historic landfills. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 146, 282–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.06.017
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Camarero, P.L., Moreira, C.A. & Pereira, H.G. (2019) Analysis of the Physical Integrity of Earth Dams from Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) in Brazil. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 176(12), 5363–5375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024‐019‐02271‐8
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cardarelli, E., Cercato, M. & De Donno, G. (2014) Characterization of an earth‐filled dam through the combined use of electrical resistivity tomography, P‐ and SH‐wave seismic tomography and surface wave data. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 106, 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2014.04.007
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Chambers, J.E., Gunn, D.A., Wilkinson, P.B., Meldrum, P.I., Haslam, E., Holyoake, S. et al. (2014) 4D electrical resistivity tomography monitoring of soil moisture dynamics in an operational railway embankment. Near Surface Geophysics, 12(1), 61–72. https://doi.org/10.3997/1873‐0604.2013002
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cho, I.K., Ha, I.S., Kim, K.S., Ahn, H.Y., Lee, S. & Kang, H.J. (2014) 3D effects on 2D resistivity monitoring in earth‐fill dams. Near Surface Geophysics, 12(1), 73–81. https://doi.org/10.3997/1873‐0604.2013065
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dunbar, J.B., Galan‐comas, G., Walshire, L.A., Wahl, R.E., Yule, D.E., Corcoran, M.K. et al. (2017) Remote sensing and monitoring of earthen flood‐control structures. Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory (Issue July). pp. 1–307.
  14. Environment Agency . (2017) Flood map for planning (rivers and sea) GIS dataset. Bristol, UK: Environment Agency.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Essex County Council . (n.d.) Landfill Site Information Sheet, Site Name: Hadleigh Sea Wall. Essex County Council.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fargier, Y., Lopes, S.P., Fauchard, C., François, D. & Côte, P. (2014) DC‐electrical resistivity imaging for embankment dike investigation: A 3D extended normalisation approach. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 103, 245–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2014.02.007
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Geuzaine, C. & Remacle, J. (2020) Gmsh: A three‐dimensional finite element mesh generator with built‐in pre‐ and post‐processing facilities. https://gmsh.info/
  18. Gunn, D.A., Chambers, J.E., Dashwood, B.E., Lacinska, A., Dijkstra, T., Uhlemann, S. et al. (2018) Deterioration model and condition monitoring of aged railway embankment using non‐invasive geophysics. Construction and Building Materials, 170, 668–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.066
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hojat, A., Arosio, D., Ivanov, V.I., Loke, M.H., Longoni, L., Papini, M. et al. (2020) Quantifying seasonal 3D effects for a permanent electrical resistivity tomography monitoring system along the embankment of an irrigation canal. Near Surface Geophysics, 18(4), 427–443. https://doi.org/10.1002/nsg.12110
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Holmes, J., Chambers, J., Meldrum, P., Wilkinson, P., Boyd, J., Williamson, P. et al. (2020) Four‐dimensional electrical resistivity tomography for continuous, near‐real‐time monitoring of a landslide affecting transport infrastructure in British Columbia, Canada. Near Surface Geophysics, 18(4), 337–351. https://doi.org/10.1002/nsg.12102
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hung, Y.C., Lin, C.P., Lee, C.T. & Weng, K.W. (2019) 3D and boundary effects on 2D electrical resistivity tomography. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 9(15), 2963. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9152963
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jodry, C., Palma Lopes, S., Fargier, Y., Sanchez, M. & Côte, P. (2019) 2D‐ERT monitoring of soil moisture seasonal behaviour in a river levee: a case study. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 167, 140–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2019.05.008
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jones, G., Sentenac, P. & Zielinski, M. (2014) Desiccation cracking detection using 2‐D and 3‐D electrical resistivity tomography: validation on a flood embankment. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 106, 196–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2014.04.018
    [Google Scholar]
  24. LaBrecque, D.J. & Yang, X. (2001) Difference inversion of ERT data: a fast inversion method for 3‐D in situ monitoring. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 6(2), 83–89.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Michalis, P, Sentenac, P. & Macbrayne, D. (2016) Geophysical assessment of dam infrastructure: the Mugdock Reservoir Dam case study. In the Third Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring, 30 March–1 April 2016, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1–6.
  26. Michalis, P. & Sentenac, P. (2021) Subsurface condition assessment of critical dam infrastructure with non‐invasive geophysical sensing. Environmental Earth Sciences, 80(17), 556. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665‐021‐09841‐x
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Moore, J.R., Boleve, A., Sanders, J.W. & Glaser, S.D. (2011) Self‐potential investigation of moraine dam seepage. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 74(4), 277–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2011.06.014
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Nimmer, R.E., Osiensky, J.L., Binley, A.M. & Williams, B.C. (2008) Three‐dimensional effects causing artifacts in two‐dimensional, cross‐borehole, electrical imaging. Journal of Hydrology, 359(1–2), 59–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.06.022
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Palacky, G. (1987) Resistivity characteristics of geological targets. In Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics‐Theory. Houston, TX: Society of Exploration Geophysicists, pp. 53–129.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Planès, T., Mooney, M.A., Rittgers, J.B.R., Parekh, M.L., Behm, M. & Snieder, R. (2016) Time‐lapse monitoring of internal erosion in earthen dams and levees using ambient seismic noise. Géotechnique, 66(4), 301–312. https://doi.org/10.1680/jgeot.14.P.268
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Rittgers, J.B., Revil, A., Planes, T., Mooney, M.A. & Koelewijn, A.R. (2015) 4‐D imaging of seepage in earthen embankments with time‐lapse inversion of self‐potential data constrained by acoustic emissions localization. Geophysical Journal International, 200(2), 756–770. https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggu432
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Sandrin, T.R., Dowd, S.E., Herman, D.C. & Maier, R.M. (2009) Aquatic environments. In: Maier, R.M., Pepper, I.L. & Gerba, C.P. (Eds.) Environmental microbiology, 2nd edition. Amsterdam: Academic Press Elsevier, pp. 103–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978‐0‐12‐370519‐8.00006‐7
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Secretary of State . (2002) The Landfill (England and Wales) Regulations 2002. Environmental Protection, England and Wales.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Sentenac, P., Benes, V. & Keenan, H. (2018) Reservoir assessment using non‐invasive geophysical techniques. Environmental Earth Sciences, 77(7), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665‐018‐7463‐x
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Sjödahl, P., Dahlin, T. & Zhou, B. (2006) 2.5D resistivity modeling of embankment dams to assess influence from geometry and material properties. Geophysics, 71(3), G107. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2198217
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tresoldi, G., Hojat, A. & Zanzi, L. (2018) Correcting the influence of 3D geometry to process 2D ERT monitoring data of river embankments at the laboratory scale. In: 37 Convegno GNGTS 2018, Bologna, Italy: GNGTS. pp. 690–694
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tresoldi, G., Arosio, D., Hojat, A., Longoni, L., Papini, M. & Zanzi, L. (2019) Long‐term hydrogeophysical monitoring of the internal conditions of river levees. Engineering Geology, 259(August 2018), 105139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2019.05.016
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Wang, F., Okeke, A.C.U., Kogure, T., Sakai, T. & Hayashi, H. (2018) Assessing the internal structure of landslide dams subject to possible piping erosion by means of microtremor chain array and self‐potential surveys. Engineering Geology, 234, 11–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2017.12.023
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Yang, K.H. & Wang, J.Y. (2018) Closure to discussion of “experiment and statistical assessment on piping failures in soils with different gradations. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology, 36(3), 376–378. https://doi.org/10.1080/1064119X.2017.1321072
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Zhang, J. & Revil, A. (2015) 2D joint inversion of geophysical data using petrophysical clustering and facies deformation. Geophysics, 80(5), M69–M88. https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2015‐0147.1
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12234
Loading
/content/journals/10.1002/nsg.12234
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): electrical resistivity tomography; embankment; modelling; site effect
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error