1887
Volume 63, Issue 6
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2478

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Steel well casings in or near a hydrocarbon reservoir can be used as source electrodes in time‐lapse monitoring using grounded line electromagnetic methods. A requisite component of carrying out such monitoring is the capability to numerically model the electromagnetic response of a set of source electrodes of finite length. We present a modelling algorithm using the finite‐element method for calculating the electromagnetic response of a three‐dimensional conductivity model excited using a vertical steel‐cased borehole as a source. The method is based on a combination of the method of moments and the Coulomb‐gauged primary–secondary potential formulation. Using the method of moments, we obtain the primary field in a half‐space due to an energized vertical steel casing by dividing the casing into a set of segments, each assumed to carry a piecewise constant alternating current density. The primary field is then substituted into the primary–secondary potential finite‐element formulation of the three‐dimensional problem to obtain the secondary field. To validate the algorithm, we compare our numerical results with: (i) the analytical solution for an infinite length casing in a whole space, excited by a line source, and (ii) a three‐layered Earth model without a casing. The agreement between the numerical and analytical solutions demonstrates the effectiveness of our algorithm. As an illustration, we also present the time‐lapse electromagnetic response of a synthetic model representing a gas reservoir undergoing water flooding.

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2015-10-29
2020-05-30
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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): EM modelling , Finite element , Three dimensional and Well casing
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