1887
Volume 67 Number 4
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2478

Abstract

ABSTRACT

This paper part one is set out to lay primary observations of experimental compaction measurements to form the basis for rock physics modelling in paper part two. P‐ and S‐wave velocities and corresponding petrophysical (porosity and density) properties of seven unconsolidated natural sands with different mineralogical compositions and textures are reported. The samples were compacted in a uniaxial strain configuration from 0.5 up to 30 MPa effective stresses. Each sand sample was subjected to three loading cycles to study the influence of stress reduction on acoustic velocities and rock physical properties with the key focus on simulating a complex burial history with periods of uplift. Results show significant differences in rock physical properties between normal compaction and overconsolidation (unloaded and reloaded). The differences observed for total porosity, density, and P‐ and S‐wave velocities are attributed to irrecoverable permanent deformation. Microtextural differences affect petrophysical, acoustic, elastic and mechanical properties, mostly during normal consolidation but are less significant during unloading and reloading. Different pre‐consolidation stress magnitudes, stress conditions (isotropic or uniaxial) and mineral compositions do not significantly affect the change in porosity and velocities during unloading as a similar steep velocity–porosity gradient is observed. The magnitude of change in the total porosity is low compared to the associated change in P‐ and S‐wave velocities during stress release. This can be explained by the different sensitivity of the porosity and acoustic properties (velocities) to the change in stress. Stress reduction during unloading yields maximum changes in the total porosity, P‐ and S‐wave velocities of 5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively. These proportions constitute the basis for the following empirical (approximation) correlations: Δ ∼ ±5 Δ and Δ ∼ ±2Δ. The patterns observed in the experiments are similar to well log data from the Barents Sea. Applications to rock physics modelling and reservoir monitoring are reported in a companion paper.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1111/1365-2478.12744
2019-02-28
2020-08-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Al‐ChalabiM. and RosenkranzP.L.2002. Velocity‐depth and time‐depth relationships for a decompacted uplifted unit. Geophysical Prospecting50, 661–664.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. AvsethP. and LehockiI.2016. Combining burial history and rock‐physics modeling to constrain AVO analysis during exploration. The Leading Edge35, 528–534.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Avseth, P., MukerjiT. and MavkoG.2005. Quantitative Seismic Interpretation: Applying Rock Physics Tools to Reduce Interpretation Risk. Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. BerreT.2011. Triaxial testing of soft rocks. Geotechnical Testing Journal34, 61–75.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. BirchF.1960. The velocity of compressional waves in rocks to 10 kilobars. Journal of Geophysical Research65, 1083–1102.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. BhuiyanM.H.R.M., HoltI. Larsen and StenebråtenJ.2013. Static and dynamic behaviour of compacted sand and clay: comparison between measurements in Triaxial and Oedometric test systems. Geophysical Prospecting61.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. BjørlykkeK.1999. Principal aspects of compaction and fluid flow in mudstones. In: Muds and Mudstones: Physical and Fluid Flow Properties, Vol. 158 (eds A.C.Aplin, A.J.Fleet and J.H.S.Macquaker ) pp.73–78. The Geological Society (London).
    [Google Scholar]
  8. BjørlykkeK.2010. Petroleum Geoscience. From Sedimentary Environments to Rock Physics. Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. BjørlykkeK. and EgebergP.K.1993. Quartz cementation in sedimentary basin. AAPG Bulletin77, 1536–1548.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. BowersG.L.1995. Pore Pressure estimation from velocity data: accounting for overpressure mechanisms besides undercompaction. Society of Petroleum Engineers10, 89–95.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. BowersG.L. and KatsubeT.J.2002. The role of shale pore‐structure on the sensitivity of wireline logs to overpressure. In: Pressure Regimes in Sedimentary Basins and their Prediction, Vol. 76 (eds A.R.Huffman and G.L.Bowers), pp. 43–60. AAPG Memoir.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. BrzesowskyR.H., SpiersC.J., PeachC.J. and HangxS.J.T.2014. Time‐independent compaction behavior of quartz sands. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth119, 936–956.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. ChuhanF.A., KjeldstadA., BjørlykkeK. and HøegK.2003. Experimental compression of loose sands: relevance to porosity reduction during burial in sedimentary basins. Canadian Geotechnical Journal40, 995–1011.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. DewhurstD.N., SigginsA.F., SaroutJ., RavenM.D. and Norgard‐BolasH.M.2011. Geomechanical and ultrasonic characterization of a Norwegian Sea shale. Geophysics76, 101–111.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dott, R.H.1964. Wacke, greywacke and matrix—what approach to immature sandstone classification? Journal of Sedimentary Petrology34, 625–632.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. DrægeA., DuffautK., WiikT. and HokstadK.2014. Linking rock physics and basin history — Filling gaps between wells in frontier basins. The Leading Edge33, 240–246.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. DvorkinJ. and NurA.1996. Elasticity of high‐porosity sandstones: theory for two North Sea datasets. Geophysics61, 1363–1370.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. FaleideJ.I., SolheimA., FiedlerA., HjelstuenB.O., AndersenE.S. and VannesteK.1996. Late Cenozoic evolution of the western Barents Sea‐Svalbard continental margin. Global and Planetary Change12, 53–74.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. FawadM., MondolN.H., JahrenJ. and BjørlykkeK.2011. Mechanical compaction and ultrasonic velocity of sands with different texture and mineralogical composition. Geophysical Prospecting59, 697–720.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. GomezC.T., DvorkinJ. and VanorioT.2010. Laboratory measurements of porosity, permeability, resistivity, and velocity on Fontainebleau sandstones. Geophysics75, E191–E204.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. GoultyN.R.1998. Relationship between porosity and effective stress in shales. First Break16, 413–419.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. GrandeL., MondolN.H. and BerreT.K.2011. Horizontal stress development in fine‐grained sediments and mudstones during compaction and uplift. 3rd EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, May 2011, Vienna, Austria Extended Abstract, EarthDoc, P372, 7.
  23. GrudeS., LandrøM. and OsdalB.2013. Time‐lapse pressure‐saturation discrimination for CO2 storage at the Snøhvit field. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Controls19, 369–378.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. HenriksenE., BjørnsethH., HalsT., HeideT., KiryukhinaT., KløvjanO., Larssen, G., Ryseth, A., Rønning, K. and Sollid, K.2011. Uplift and erosion of the greater Barents Sea: impact on prospectivity and petroleum systems. Geological Society of London Memoirs35, 271–281.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. HoltR.M.1994. Effects of coring on petrophysical measurements. International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Paper SCA9407.
  26. HoltR.M.1999. Laboratory acoustic measurements for reservoir characterization: consequences of core alteration, International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Paper SCA9926.
  27. HornbyB.1998. Experimental laboratory determination of the dynamic elastic properties of wet, drained shales. Journal of Geophysical Research103, 29945–29964.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. JapsenP. and ChalmersJ.A.2000. Neogene uplift and tectonics around the North Atlantic: Overview. Global and Planetary Change24, 165–173.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. JonesL.E.A. and WangH.F.1981. Ultrasonic velocities in Cretaceous shales from the Williston basin. Geophysics46, 288–297.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. LaddR.S.1978. Preparing test specimens using undercompaction. Geotechnical Testing Journal1, 16–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. MondolN.H., AvsethP., FawadM. and SmithT.2010. Vs prediction in unconsolidated sands‐physical and geological controls on shear wave velocity, 72nd EAGE meeting, Expanded Abstract, 351.
  32. MondolN.H., BjørlykkeK. and JahrenJ.2008. Experimental compaction of clays ‐ Relationship between permeability and petrophysical properties of mudstones. Petroleum Geoscience14, 319–337.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. MondolN.H., BjørlykkeK., JahrenJ. and HoegK.2007. Experimental mechanical compaction of clay mineral aggregates — Changes in physical properties of mudstones during burial. Marine and Petroleum Geology24, 289–311.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. NarongsirikulS., MondolN.H. and JahrenJ.2013a. Possible application of friable sand model for shallow mechanically compacted overconsolidated sands. 2013 SEG Annual Meeting, September 2013, Houston, Texas. Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
  35. NarongsirikulS., MondolN.H. and JahrenJ.2013b. Acoustic, electric, and petrophysical properties of mechanically compacted sands of varying mineralogy ‐ simulating the effects of uplift on rock properties. 2nd International Workshop on Rock Physics (2IWRP), Southampton, UK. EAGE.
  36. NarongsirikulS., MondolN.H. and JahrenJ.2013c. Density/porosity versus velocity of overconsolidated sands derived from experimental compaction. 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2013, Extended Abstracts.
  37. NarongsirikulS., MondolN.H. and JahrenJ.2018. Acoustic, petrophysical and mechanical properties of mechanically compacted overconsolidated sands: part 2 –rock physics modelling and applications. Geophysical Prospecting67, 114–127.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. NygårdR., GutierrezM., HøegK. and BjørlykkeK.2004. Influence of burial history on microstructure and compaction behavior of Kimmeridge clay. Petroleum Geoscience10, 259–270.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. OhmS.E., KarlsenD.A. and AustinT.J.F.2008. Geochemically driven exploration models in uplifted areas: examples from the Norwegian Barents Sea. AAPG Bulletin92, 1191–1223.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. PettersenØ.2007. Sandstone compaction, grain packing and critical state theory. Petroleum Geoscience13, 63–67.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. PrasadM.2002. Acoustic measurements in sands at low effective pressure: overpressure detection in sands. Geophysics67, 405–412.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. RiisF. and FjeldskaarW.1992. On the magnitude of the Late Tertiary and Quaternary erosion and its significance for the uplift of Scandinavia and the Barents Sea. Proceedings of Norwegian Petroleum Society Workshop, October 1989, pp. 163–185. Norwegian Petroleum Society.
  43. SaroutJ., EstebanL., Delle PianeC., ManeyB. and DewhurstD.N.2014. Elastic anisotropy of Opalinus Clay under variable saturation and triaxial stress. Geophysical Journal International198, 1662–1682.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. SaroutJ., Le GonidecY., Ougier‐SimoninA., SchubnelA., GuéguenY. and DewhurstD.N.2017. Laboratory micro‐seismic signature of shear faulting and fault slip in shale. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors264, 47–62.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. TaoG., KingM.S. and Nabi‐BidhendiM.1995. Ultrasolic wave propagation in dry and brine‐saturated sandstones as a function of effective stress: laboratory measurements and modelling. Geophysical Prospecting42, 299–328.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. WangZ.2002a. Seismic anisotropy in sedimentary rocks, part 1: a single‐plug method. Geophysics67, 1415–1422.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. WangZ.2002b. Seismic anisotropy in sedimentary rocks, part 2: laboratory data. Geophysics67, 1423–1440.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. YinH.1992. Acoustic velocity and attenuation of rocks: Isotropy, intrinsic anisotropy and stress induced anisotropy. PhD Thesis, Stanford University, CA, USA.
  49. ZadehM.K., MondolN.H. and JahrenJ.2016. Experimental mechanical compaction of sands and sand–clay mixtures: a study to investigate evolution of rock properties with full control on mineralogy and rock texture. Geophysical Prospecting64, 915–941.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. ZimmerM.A.2003. Seismic velocities of unconsolidated sands: Measurements of pressure, sorting, and compaction effects Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, CA, USA.
  51. ZimmerM.A., PrasadM., MavkoG. and NurA.2007. Seismic velocities of unconsolidated sands: part 1 – pressure trends from 0.1 to 20 MPa. Geophysics72, E1–E13.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1111/1365-2478.12744
Loading
/content/journals/10.1111/1365-2478.12744
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Acoustic , Experimental compaction , Overconsolidated sands , Porosity , Rock physics and Uplift
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error