1887
Volume 25, Issue 4
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2117

Abstract

Abstract

Graben systems in extensional settings tend to be segmented with evidence of segment interaction. To gain a better understanding of the evolution of structures formed during graben growth and interaction, we here study the Grabens area of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, where a wide range of such structures is well exposed. With the aid of 3D numerical models, we attempt to reproduce structures observed in that region and to understand controls on the structural style of graben interaction by varying the spacing between pre‐existing structures. The sensitivity of the system to the thickness of the salt layer is also tested. Four distinct types of structures are observed when the spacing between inherited weak zones is varied: (1) grabens connecting in a relay zone divided by a narrow central horst; (2) graben segments interacting via a secondary stepover graben; (3) grabens propagating alongside each other with limited segment interaction; and (4) an abandoned graben segment in a system of multiple competing grabens. The presence of a basal salt layer (Paradox Member) promotes efficient graben propagation. A comparison between the observed structures and the numerical model results indicates that the detachment salt layer is relatively thin in the study area.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1111/bre.12010
2013-03-20
2020-04-09
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allken, V., Huismans, R.S. & Thieulot, C. (2011) Three‐dimensional numerical modeling of upper crustal extensional systems. J. Geophys. Res., 116, B10409. doi:10.1029/2011JB008319.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allken, V., Huismans, R.S. & Thieulot, C. (2012) Factors controlling the mode of rift interaction in brittle‐ductile coupled systems: a 3D numerical study. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 13, Q05010. doi:10.1029/2012GC004077.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Baker, A. (1933) Geology and oil possibilities of the Moab district, Grand and San Juan Counties. Geological Survey Bulletin, Utah, US. p.841.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barbeau, D.L. (2003) A flexural model for the Paradox Basin: implications for the tectonics of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Basin Res., 15(1), 97–115.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Biggar, N.E. & Adams, J.A. (1987) Dates derived from Quaternary strata in the vicinity of Canyonlands National Park. In: Geology of Cataract Canyon and Vicinity: Four Corners Geological Society (Ed. by J.A.Campbell ), pp.127–136. Four Corners Geological Society, Durango, CO.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Byerlee, J. (1978) Friction of rocks. Pure Appl. Geophys., 4–5, 615–626.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cartwright, J.A. & Mansfield, C.S. (1998) Lateral displacement variation and lateral tip geometry of normal faults in the Canyonlands National Park, Utah. J. Struct. Geol., 20(1), 3–19.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cartwright, J.A., Trudgill, B.D. & Mansfield, C.S. (1995) Fault growth by segment linkage ‐ An explanation for scatter in maximum displacement and trace length data from the Canyonlands grabens of SE Utah. J. Struct. Geol., 17(19), 1319–1326.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cowie, P.A., Gupta, S. & Dawers, N.H. (2000) Implications of fault array evolution for synrift depocentre development: insights from a numerical fault growth model. Basin Res., 12(3–4), 241–261.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fossen, H., Schultz, R.A., Rundhovde, E., Rotevatn, A. & Buckley, S.J. (2010) Fault linkage and graben stepovers in the Canyonlands (Utah) and the North Sea Viking Graben, with implications for hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. AAPG Bull., 94(5), 597–613.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Furuya, M., Mueller, K. & Wahr, J. (2007) Active salt tectonics in the Needles District, Canyonlands (Utah) as detected by interferometric synthetic aperture radar and point target analysis: 1992‐2002. J. Geophys. Res., 112, 18 pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Huggins, P., Watterson, J., Walsh, J.J. & Childs, C. (1995) Relay zone geometry and displacement transfer between normal faults recorded in coal‐mine plans. J. Struct. Geol., 17(12), 1741–1755.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Huntoon, P.W. (1982) The Meander anticline, Canyonlands, Utah: An unloading structure resulting from horizontal gliding on salt. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 93, 941–950.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jackson, C.A.L., Gawthorpe, R.L. & Sharp, I.R. (2002) Growth and linkage of the East Tanka fault zone, Suez rift: structural style and syn‐rift stratigraphic response. J. Geol. Soc., 159, 175–187.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kaus, B. (2010) Factors that control the angle of shear bands in geodynamic numerical models of brittle deformation. Tectonophysics, 484(1–4), 36–47. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2009.08.042.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. McGill, G.E. & Stromquist, A.W. (1979) Grabens of Canyonlands National Park, Utah: Geometry, Mechanics, and Kinematics. J. Geophys. Res., 84(NB9), 4547–4563.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. McGill, G.E., Schultz, R.A. & Moore, J.M. (2000) Fault growth by segment linkage: an explanation for scatter in maximum displacement and trace length data from the Canyonlands grabens of SE Utah: Discussion. J. Struct. Geol., 22(1), 135–140.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Melosh, H.J. & William, C.A. (1989) Mechanics of graben formation in crustal rocks: A Finite Element analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 94(B10), 13961–13973.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Moore, J.M. & Schultz, R.A. (1999) Processes of faulting in jointed rocks of Canyonlands National Park, Utah. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 111(6), 808–822.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Morewood, N.C. & Roberts, G.P. (2002) Surface observations of active normal fault propagation: implications for growth. J. Geol. Soc., 159, 263–272.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Morley, C.K. (1999) How successful are analogue models in addressing the influence of pre‐existing fabrics on rift structure?J. Struct. Geol., 21(8–9), 1267–1274.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Morley, C.K., Nelson, R.A., Patton, T.L. & Munn, S.G. (1990) Transfer zones in the East‐African rift system and their relevance to hydrocarbon exploration in rifts. AAPG Bull., 74(8), 1234–1253.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ranalli, G. (1995) Rheology of the Earth. Chapman and Hall, London, UK.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Schultz‐Ela, D.D. & Walsh, P. (2002) Modeling of grabens extending above evaporites in Canyonlands National Park, Utah. J. Struct. Geol., 24(2), 247–275.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Thieulot, C. (2011) FANTOM: two‐ and three‐dimensional numerical modelling of creeping flows for the solution of geological problems. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 188, 47–68.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Trudgill, B.D. (2002) Structural controls on drainage development in the Canyonlands grabens of southeast Utah. AAPG Bull., 86(6), 1095–1112.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Trudgill, B.D. (2011) Evolution of salt structures in the northern Paradox Basin: controls on evaporite deposition, salt wall growth and supra‐salt stratigraphic architecture. Basin Res., 23(2), 208–238.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Trudgill, B. & Cartwright, J. (1994) Relay‐ramp forms and normal‐fault linkages, Canyonlands National Park, Utah. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 106(9), 1143–1157.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Walsh, P. & Schultz‐Ela, D.D. (2003) Mechanics of graben evolution in Canyonlands National Park, Utah. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 115(3), 259–270.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1111/bre.12010
Loading
/content/journals/10.1111/bre.12010
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error