1887
Volume 27, Issue 6
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2117

Abstract

Abstract

Sediment supply rate and accommodation regime represent primary controls on the depositional architecture of basin margin successions, but their interaction is commonly inferred from 2D dip profiles and/or with limited constraints on sedimentary facies. In this study, three parallel (>40 km long) 2D depositional oblique‐dip profiles from outcrops of the lower Waterford Formation (Karoo Basin, South Africa) have been correlated. This data set provides a rare opportunity to assess the lateral variability in the sedimentary process record of the shelf‐to‐slope transition for eight successive clinothems over a 900 km2 area. The three profiles show similar shelf‐edge rollover trajectories, but this belies significant along‐margin variability in sedimentary processes and down‐dip sediment supply. The depositional architecture of three successive clinothems (WfC 3, 4 and 5) also show along‐shelf physiographic differences. The reconstructed shelf‐edge rollover position is not straight, and a westward curve to the north coincides with an area of greater sand supply to the slope beyond a shelf dominated by wave and storm processes. All the clinothems thicken northwards, indicating an along‐margin long‐term increase in accommodation that was maintained through multiple shoreline transits across the shelf. The origin of the differential subsidence cannot be discriminated confidently between tectonic or compaction processes. The interplay of basin margin physiography, differential subsidence rate and process regime resulted in significant across‐strike variability in the style and timing of sediment dispersal patterns beyond the shelf‐edge rollover. This study highlights the challenge for accurate prediction of the sediment partitioning across the shelf‐edge rollover in subsurface studies.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1111/bre.12092
2015-01-20
2019-12-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Bowman, A.P. & Johnson, H.D. (2014) Storm‐dominated shelf‐edge delta successions in a high accommodation setting: the palaeo‐Orinoco Delta (Mayaro Formation), Columbus Basin, South‐East Trinidad. Sedimentology, 61, 792–835.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Boyd, R., Ruming, K., Goodwin, I., Sandstrom, M. & Schröder‐Adams, C. (2008) Highstand transport of coastal sand to the deep ocean: a case study from Fraser Island, southeast Australia. Geology, 36, 15–18.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Burgess, P.M. & Hovius, N. (1998) Rates of delta progradation during highstands: consequences for timing of deposition in deep marine systems. J. Geol. Soc., 155, 217–222.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Carvajal, C.R. & Steel, R.J. (2006) Thick turbidite successions from supply‐dominated shelves during sea‐level highstand. Geology, 34, 665–668.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Carvajal, C. & Steel, R. (2009) Shelf‐edge architecture and bypass of sand to deep water: influence of shelf‐edge processes, sea level, and sediment supply. J. Sediment. Res., 79, 652–672.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Christie‐Blick, N. (1991) Onlap, offlap, and the origin of unconformity‐bounded depositional sequences. Mar. Geol., 97, 35–56.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Christie‐Blick, N. & Driscoll, N.W. (1995) Sequence stratigraphy. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 23, 451–478.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cole, D.I. & Whipplinger, P.E. (2001) Sedimentology and molybdenum potential Beaufort group in the Karoo basin. Council for Geoscience, Geological Survay of South Africa, Memoir 80.
  9. Covault, J.A. & Graham, S.A. (2010) Submarine fans at all sea‐level stands: tectono‐morphologic and climatic controls on terrigenous sediment delivery to the deep sea. Geology, 38, 939–942.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Covault, J.A., Normark, W.R., Romans, B.W. & Graham, S.A. (2007) Highstand fans in the California borderland: the overlooked deep‐water depositional systems. Geology, 35, 783–786.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Covault, J.A., Romans, B.W. & Graham, S.A. (2009) Outcrop expression of a continental‐margin‐scale shelf‐edge delta from the cretaceous Magallanes Basin, Chile. J. Sediment. Res., 79, 523–539.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dail, M.B., Reide Corbett, D. & Walsh, J.P. (2007) Assessing the importance of tropical cyclones on continental margin sedimentation in the Mississippi delta region. Cont. Shelf Res., 27, 1857–1874.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Di Celma, C.N., Brunt, R.L., Hodgson, D.M., Flint, S.S. & Kavanagh, J.P. (2011) Spatial and temporal evolution of a Permian submarine slope channel‐levee system, Karoo Basin, South Africa. J. Sediment. Res., 81(8), 579–599.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dixon, J.F., Steel, R.J. & Olariu, C. (2012a) Shelf‐edge delta regime as a predictor of deep‐water deposition. J. Sediment. Res., 82, 681–687.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dixon, J.F., Steel, R.J. & Olariu, C. (2012b) River‐dominated, shelf‐edge deltas: delivery of sand across the shelf break in the absence of slope incision. Sedimentology, 59, 1133–1157.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Driscoll, N.W. & Karner, G.D. (1999) Three‐dimensional quantitative modeling of clinoform development. Mar. Geol., 154, 383–398.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Figueiredo, J.J.P., Hodgson, D.M., Flint, S.S. & Kavanagh, J.P. (2010) Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of an exhumed permian mudstone‐dominated submarine slope succession, Karoo Basin, South Africa. J. Sediment. Res., 80, 97–118.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Flint, S., Hodgson, D.M., Sprague, A., Brunt, R., Box, D., Van Der Merwe, W.C., Figueiredo, J., Di Celma, C., Prelat, A. & Kavanagh, J. (2011) Depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Karoo basin floor to shelf edge succession, Laingsburg depocentre, South Africa. Mar. Pet. Geol., 28, 658–674.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Fulthorpe, C.S. & Austin, J.A. (2008) Assessing the significance of along‐strike variations of middle to late miocene prograding clinoformal sequence geometries beneath the New Jersey continental shelf. Basin Res., 20, 269–283.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Galloway, W.E. (1989) Genetic stratigraphic sequences in basin analysis; ii, application to northwest Gulf of Mexico Cenozoic Basin. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 73, 125–142.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Goff, J.A., Allison, M.A. & Gulick, S.P.S. (2010) Offshore transport of sediment during cyclonic storms: hurricane Ike (2008), Texas Gulf Coast, USA. Geology, 38, 351–354.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Helland‐Hansen, W. (2010) Facies and stacking patterns of shelf‐deltas within the Palaeogene Battfjellet Formation, Nordenskiöld Land, Svalbard: implications for subsurface reservoir prediction. Sedimentology, 57, 190–208.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Helland‐Hansen, W. & Hampson, G.J. (2009) Trajectory analysis: concepts and applications. Basin Res., 21, 454–483.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Henriksen, S., Hampson, G.J., Helland‐Hansen, W., Johannessen, E.P. & Steel, R.J. (2009) Shelf edge and shoreline trajectories, a dynamic approach to stratigraphic analysis. Basin Res., 21, 445–453.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Henriksen, S., Helland‐Hansen, W. & Bullimore, S. (2011) Relationships between shelf‐edge trajectories and sediment dispersal along depositional dip and strike: a different approach to sequence stratigraphy. Basin Res., 23, 3–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hodgson, D.M., Di Celma, C.N., Brunt, R.L. & Flint, S.S. (2011) Submarine slope degradation and aggradation and the stratigraphic evolution of channel‐levee systems. J. Geol. Soc., 168, 625–628.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hubbard, S.M., Fildani, A., Romans, B.W., Covault, J.A. & McHargue, T. (2010) High‐relief slope clinoform development: insights from outcrop, Magallanes Basin, Chile. J. Sediment. Res., 80, 357.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Johannessen, E.P. & Steel, R.J. (2005) Shelf‐margin clinoforms and prediction of deepwater sands. Basin Res., 17, 521–550.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Johnson, M.R., van Vuuren, C.J., Visser, J.N.J., Cole, D.I., van de Wickens, H., Christie, A.D.M. & Roberts, D.L. (1997) The Foreland Karoo Basin, South Africa in Selley. In: African Basins. Sedimentary Basins of the World, vol. 3 (Ed. by R.C.Selley ), pp. 269–317. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Jones, G.E.D., Hodgson, D.M. & Flint, S.S. (2013) Contrast in the process response of stacked clinothems to the shelf‐slope rollover. Geosphere, 9, 299–316.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Kolla, V., Biondi, P., Long, B. & Fillon, R. (2000) Sequence stratigraphy and architecture of the late pleistocene lagniappe delta Complex, Northeast Gulf of Mexico. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ., 172, 291–327.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Marjanac, T. (1996) Deposition of megabeds (Megaturbidites) and sea‐level change in a proximal part of the eocene‐miocene flysch of central dalmatia (Croatia). Geology, 24, 543–546.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Martinsen, O.J. & Helland‐Hansen, W. (1995) Strike variability of clastic depositional systems: does it matter for sequence‐stratigraphic analysis?Geology, 23, 439–442.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Matteucci, T.D. & Hine, A.C. (1987) Evolution of the Cape Fear Terrace: a complex interaction between the Gulf Stream and a paleo‐shelf edge delta. Mar. Geol., 77, 185–205.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Mellere, D., Plink‐Bjorklund, P. & Steel, R. (2002) Anatomy of shelf deltas at the edge of a prograding Eocene shelf margin, Spitsbergen. Sedimentology, 49, 1181–1206.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. van der Merwe, W.C., Hodgson, D.M. & Flint, S.S. (2009) Widespread syn‐sedimentary deformation on a muddy deep‐water basin‐floor: the Vischkuil Formation (Permian), Karoo Basin, South Africa. Basin Res., 21, 389–406.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. van der Merwe, W.C., Flint, S.S. & Hodgson, D.M. (2010) Sequence stratigraphy of an argillaceous, deepwater basin‐plain succession: vischkuil Formation (Permian), Karoo Basin, South Africa. Mar. Pet. Geol., 27, 321–333.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Miller, K.G., Mountain, G.S., Browning, J.V., Katz, M.E., Monteverde, D., Sugarman, P.J., Ando, H., Bassetti, M.A., Bjerrum, C.J., Hodgson, D.M., Hesselbo, S., Proust, J.‐N. & Rabinau, M. (2013a) Testing sequence stratigraphic models by drilling Miocene clinothems on the New Jersey shallow shelf. Geosphere, 9, 1236–1256.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Miller, K.G., Browning, J.V., Mountain, G.S., Bassetti, M.A., Monteverde, D., Katz, M.E., Inwood, J., Lofi, J. & Proust, J.N. (2013b) Sequence boundaries are impedance contrasts: core‐seismic‐log integration of Oligocene‐Miocene sequences, New Jersey shallow shelf. Geosphere, 9, 1257–1285.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Milton, N. & Dyce, M. (1995) Systems tract geometries associated with early eocene lowstands, imaged on a 3D seismic dataset from the Bruce Area, Uk North Sea. In: Sequence Stratigraphy on the Northwest European Margin. Norwegian Petroleum Society (Ed. by SteelR.J. , FeltV.L. , JohannessenE.P. & MathieuC. ) Special Publication no., 5, 429–449.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Mitrovica, J.X., Beaumont, C. & Jarvis, G.T. (1989) Tilting of continental interiors by the dynamical effects of subduction. Tectonics, 8, 1079–1094.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Monteverde, D.H., Mountain, G.S. & Miller, K.G. (2008) Early miocene sequence development across the New Jersey margin. Basin Res., 20, 249–267.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Morton, R.A. & Suter, J.R. (1996) Sequence stratigraphy and composition of late quaternary shelf‐margin deltas, northern Gulf of Mexico. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 80, 505–530.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Moscardelli, L., Wood, L.J. & Dunlap, D.B. (2012) Shelf‐edge deltas along structurally complex margins: a case study from eastern Offshore Trinidad. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 96, 1483–1522.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Muto, T. & Steel, R.J. (2002) In defense of shelf edge delta development during falling and lowstand of relative sea level. J. Geol., 110, 421–436.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Normark, W., Piper, D. & Hiscott, R. (1998) Sea level controls on the textural characteristics and depositional architecture of the Hueneme and associated submarine fan systems, Santa Monica Basin, California. Sedimentology, 45, 53–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Olariu, C. & Steel, R.J. (2009) Influence of point‐source sediment‐supply on modern shelf‐slope morphology: implications for interpretation of ancient shelf margins. Basin Res., 21, 484–501.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Oliveira, C.M.M., Hodgson, D.M. & Flint, S.S. (2011) Distribution of soft‐sediment deformation structures in clinoform successions of the Permian Ecca Group, Karoo Basin, South Africa. Sed. Geol., 235, 314–330.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Piper, D.J.W. & Normark, W.R. (2001) Sandy fans‐from Amazon to Hueneme and beyond. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 85, 1407–1438.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Poag, C.W., Swift, B.A., Schlee, J.S., Ball, M.M. & Sheetz, L.L. (1990) Early cretaceous shelf‐edge deltas of the Baltimore canyon trough: principal sources for sediment gravity deposits of the northern Hatteras Basin. Geology, 18, 149–152.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Pontén, A. & Plink‐Bjorklund, P. (2009) Process regime changes across a regressive to transgressive turnaround in a shelf‐slope basin, Eocene central basin of Spitsbergen. J. Sediment. Res., 79, 2–23.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Porębski, S.J. & Steel, R.J. (2003) Shelf‐margin deltas: their stratigraphic significance and relation to deepwater sands. Earth Sci. Rev., 62, 283–326.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Posamentier, H.W. & Vail, P.R. (1988) Eustatic controls on clastic deposition ii – sequence and systems tract models. In: Sea‐Level Changes – An Integrated Approach (Ed. by WilgusC.K. , HastingsB.S. , KendallC.G.S.C. , PosamentierH.W. , RossC.A. & Van WagonerJ.C. ) SEPM Spec. Publ., 42, 125–154.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Posamentier, H.W., Jervey, M.T. & Vail, P.R. (1988) Eustatic controls on clastic deposition I – conceptual framework. In: Sea Level Changes – An Integrated Approach (Ed. by WilgusC.K. , HastingsB.S. , KendallC.G.S.C. , PosamentierH.W. , RossC.A. & Van WagonerJ.C. ) SEPM Special Publication, 42, 109–124.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Prélat, A. & Hodgson, D.M. (2013) The full range of turbidite bed thickness patterns in submarine lobes: controls and implications. J. Geol. Soc., 170, 209–214.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Pyles, D. & Slatt, R. (2007) Applications to understanding shelf edge to base‐of‐slope changes in stratigraphic architecture of prograding basin margins: stratigraphy of the Lewis Shale. In: Atlas of deep water outcrops CD‐ROM (Ed. by T.H.Nilsen , R.D.Shew , G.S.Steffens & J.R.J.Studlick ), AAPG Studies in Geology, WyomingUSA56, pp. 19.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Rogers, K.G. & Goodbred, S.L. (2010) Mass failures associated with the passage of a large tropical cyclone over the swatch of no ground submarine canyon (Bay of Bengal). Geology, 38, 1051–1054.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Rubidge, B.S., Hancox, P.J. & Catuneanu, O. (2000) Sequence analysis of the Ecca‐Beaufort contact in the southern Karoo of south Africa. S. Afr. J. Geol., 1, 81–96.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Ryan, M.C., Helland‐Hansen, W., Johannessen, E.P. & Steel, R.J. (2009) Erosional vs. accretionary shelf margins: the influence of margin type on deepwater sedimentation: an example from the porcupine basin, Offshore Western Ireland. Basin Res., 21, 676–703.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Saller, A.H., Noah, J.T., Ruzuar, A.P. & Schneider, R. (2004) Linked lowstand delta to basin‐floor fan deposition, offshore Indonesia: an analog for deep‐water reservoir systems. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 88, 21–46.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Sanchez, C.M., Fulthorpe, C.S. & Steel, R.J. (2012a) Miocene shelf‐edge deltas and their impact on deepwater slope progradation and morphology, northwest shelf of Australia. Basin Res., 24, 683–698.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Sanchez, C.M., Fulthorpe, C.S. & Steel, R.J. (2012b) Middle Miocene‐Pliocene siliciclastic influx across a carbonate shelf and influence of deltaic sedimentation on shelf construction, northern Carnarvon basin, northwest shelf of Australia. Basin Res., 24, 664–682.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Sangree, J.B. & Widmier, J.M. (1978) Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level, part 9: seismic interpretation of clastic depositional facies. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 62, 752–771.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Sixsmith, P.J., Flint, S.S., Wickens, H.D.V. & Johnson, S.D. (2004) Anatomy and stratigraphic development of a basin floor turbidite system in the Laingsburg formation, Main Karoo Basin, South Africa. J. Sediment. Res., 74, 239–254.
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Steel, R. & Olsen, T. (2002) Clinoforms, clinoform trajectories and deepwater sands. In: Sequence Stratigraphic Models for Exploration and Production: Evolving Models and Application Histories: Proceedings of the Gulf Coast Section Society for Sedimentary Geology (GCSSEPM), 22nd Research Conference (CD‐ROM) (Ed. by ArmentroutJ.M. & RosenN. ), pp. 367–381.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Steel, R.J., Carvajal, C., Petter, A. & Uroza, C. (2008) Shelf and shelf‐margin growth in scenarios of rising and falling sea level. In: Recent Advances in Models of Siliciclastic Shallow‐Marine Stratigraphy: SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) (Ed. by HampsonG.J. , SteelR.J. , BurgessP.M. & DalrympleR. ) Special Publication, 90, 47–71.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Suter, J.R. & Berryhill, H.L. (1985) Late quaternary shelf‐margin deltas, northwest Gulf of Mexico. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 69, 77–91.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Sydow, J., Finneran, J. & Bowman, A.P. (2003). Stacked shelf‐edge delta reservoirs of the Columbus Basin, Trinidad, West Indies. Shelf‐Margin Deltas and Linked Downslope Petroleum Systems, 441–465.
  69. Sylvester, Z., Deptuck, M.E., Prather, B.E., Pirmez, C. & O'Byrne, C. (2012). Seismic stratigraphy of a shelf‐edge delta and linked submarine channels in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. In: Application of the Principles of Seismic Geomorphology to Continental‐Slope and Base‐of‐slope Systems: Case Studies From Seafloor and Near‐Seafloor Analogues (Ed. by PratherB. , DeptuckM.E. , MohrigD. , Van HoorB. & WynnR. ) SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology Special Publication, 99, 31–59.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Tankard, A., Welsink, H., Aukes, P., Newton, R. & Stettler, E. (2009) Tectonic evolution of the cape and Karoo basins of South Africa. Mar. Pet. Geol., 26, 1379–1412.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Tesson, M., Gensous, B., Allen, G.P. & Ravenne, C. (1990) Late quaternary deltaic lowstand wedges on the Rhône continental shelf, France. Mar. Geol., 91, 325–332.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Vail, P.R., Mitchum, R.M.J. & Thompson, S. (1977) Seismic stratigraphic and global changes in sea level, part 3. In: Seismic Stratigraphy – Application to Hydrocarbon Exploration (Ed. by PlaytonC.E. ) AAPG Memoir. Tulsa, 26, 63–82.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Van Wagoner, J.C., Posamentier, H.W., Mitchum, R.M., Vail, P.R., Sarg, J.F., Loutit, T.S. & Hardenbol, J. (1988) An overview of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions. SEPM Spec. Publ., 42, 39–45.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Van Wagoner, J.C., Mitchum, R.M., Campion, K.M. & Rahmanian, V.D. (1990) Siliciclastic sequence stratigraphy in well logs, cores, and outcrops: concepts for high resolution correlation for time and facies. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Meth. Explor., 7, 55.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Veevers, J.J., Cole, D.I. & Cowan, E.J. (1994) Southern Africa: Karoo basin and Cape Fold belt. In: Permian‐Triassic Pangean Basins and Foldbelts Along the Panthalassan Margin of Gondwanaland (Ed. by VeeversJ.J. & PowellC. ) Geological Society America Memoir, 184, 223–279.
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Weber, M.E., Wiedicke, M.H., Kudrass, H.R., Hübscher, C. & Erlenkeuser, H. (1997) Active growth of the Bengal Fan during sea‐level rise and highstand. Geology, 25, 315–318.
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Wickens, H.D. (1994) Basin Floor Fan Building Turbidites of the Southwestern Karoo Basin, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa, Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth.
  78. Wild, R., Flint, S.S. & Hodgson, D.M. (2009) Stratigraphic evolution of the upper slope and shelf edge in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Basin Res., 21, 502–527.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1111/bre.12092
Loading
/content/journals/10.1111/bre.12092
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary information.

 

 

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error