Volume 32 Number 2
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2478



In land seismic surveys spectrum equalization can increase the quality of seismic data in a selected frequency band. The power of lower frequencies in the spectrum of input traces is generally greater than that of higher frequencies, particularly in land seismic surveys because of ground roll. In order to improve the quality of seismic data it is necessary to raise the energy of higher frequencies to the same level as that of lower frequencies, without alteration of the phases.

The first step of the method is to compute the amplitude spectrum of each input trace to determine a weighting function which is then applied to the amplitude spectrum in order to balance it. The function is the inverse of the short wavelength variation of the amplitude spectrum. The short wavelength variation can be obtained by interpolation between average values of the modulus of the amplitude spectrum computed in narrow bands within a selected band of frequencies. Another way of obtaining the short wavelength variation is to apply a low‐pass filter to the amplitude spectrum. The calculations are readily performed in the frequency domain by the Fourier transform.

Spectrum equalization is automatically adjusted to each trace and does not modify the average amplitude in the time domain. However, as the frequency band and energy of the ground roll both vary according to the distance from the shot, spectrum equalization tends to make the spectrum of output traces independent of the offset distance.

The use of spectrum equalization before any two‐dimensional filtering improves ground roll elimination. Continuity and resolution of horizons are also increased by spectrum equalization before CDP stack.

Several examples of applications of spectrum equalization to seismic land and marine surveys are shown.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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