1887
Volume 42 Number 3
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2478

Abstract

Abstract

Geophysical surveys and chemical analyses on cores were carried out in three Ontario peatlands, from which we have gained a better understanding of the peat properties that control the geophysical responses. The electrical conductivity depends linearly on the concentration of total dissolved solids in the peat pore waters and the pore waters in turn bear the ionic signatures of the underlying mineral sediments. The ionic concentration, and thus the electrical conductivity, increase linearly from the surface to basement. The average bulk electrical conductivity of peatlands at Ellice Marsh, near Stratford, and at Wally Creek Area Forest Drainage Project, near Cochrane, are of the order of 25 mS/m. The Mer Bleue peatland, near Ottawa, has extremely high electrical conductivity, reaching levels of up to 380 mS/m near the base of the peat. The Mer Bleue peatland water has correspondingly high values of total dissolved solids, which originate from the underlying Champlain Sea glaciomarine clays. The dielectric permittivity in peats is largely controlled by the bulk water content. Ground penetrating radar can detect changes in water content greater than 3%, occurring within a depth interval less than 15 cm. The principal peatland interfaces detected are the near‐surface aerobic to anaerobic transition and the peat to mineral basement contact. The potential for the successful detection of the basement contact using the radar can be predicted using the radar instrument specifications, estimates of the peatland depth, and either the bulk peat or the peat pore water electrical conductivities. Predicted depths of penetration of up to 10 m for Ellice Marsh and Wally Creek exceed the observed depths of 1 to 2 m. At Mer Bleue, on the other hand, we observe that, as predicted, a 100 MHz signal will penetrate to the base of a 2 m thick peat but a 200 MHz signal will not.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1111/j.1365-2478.1994.tb00205.x
2006-04-27
2020-05-31
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. AnnanA.P. and DavisJ.L.1977. Radar range analysis for geological materials. In: Current Research, Part B, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 77‐1b, pp. 117–124.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. BaraniakD.W.1983. Exploration for surface peat deposits using ground penetrating radar. In: International Symposium on Peat Utilisation (eds C.H.Fuchsman and S.A.Spigarelli ), pp. 105–121. Bemidji State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. BelangerJ.R. and HarrisonJ.E.1977. Regional geoscience information: Ottawa‐Hull. In: Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 77–11.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. BengtssonL. and EnellM.1986. Chemical analysis. In: Handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology (Ed. B.E.Berglund ), John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. BikM.J.J., HerrR. and SalmJ.1971. Saline groundwater, Central Research Forest, Ramsayville, Ontario. In: Current Research, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 71‐1a, pp. 149–154.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. BjelmL.1980. Geological interpretation with subsurface interface radar in peatlands. International Peat Society, Proceedings, 6th International Peat Congress, 7–8.
  7. ChernetsovE.A., BeletskyN.A. and BaevM.Yu.1987. Radar profiling of peat and gyttja deposits. In: Proceedings: Symposium ′87, Wetlands/Peatlands (eds C.D.A.Rubec and R.P.Overend ), pp. 15–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. ClymoR.S.1983. Peat. In: Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen and Moor (Ed. A.J.P.Gore ), Part A, pp. 159–224. Elsevier Science Publishing Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. DavisJ.L. and AnnanA.P.1989. Ground‐penetrating radar for high‐resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy. Geophysical Prospecting37, 531–551.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. DavisJ.L., ToppG.C. and AnnanA.P.1977. Measuring soil water content in situ using time‐domain reflectometry techniques. In: Current Research, Part B, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 77‐1b, pp. 33–36.
  11. DesaulniersD.E. and CherryJ.A.1989. Origin and movement of groundwater and major ions in a thick deposit of Champlain Sea clay near Montreal. Canadian Geotechnical Journal26, 80–89.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. DinelH., MathurS.P., BrownA. and LevesqueM.1988. A field study of the effect of depth on methane production in peatland waters: equipment and preliminary results. Journal of Ecology76, 1083–1448.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. DriscollF.G.1986. Groundwater and Wells, 2nd edn.Johnson Division.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Finkel'shteinM.I.1977. Subsurface radar. Telecommunications and Radio Engineering32, 18–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. FisherE., McMechanG.A. and AnnanA.P.1992. Acquisition and processing of wide‐aperture ground‐penetrating radar. Geophysics57, 495–504.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. FreezeR.A. and CherryJ.A.1979. Groundwater. Prentice‐Hall, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. FuchsmanC.H.1987. Needs and opportunities for new insights into the relationship of peat to water. In: Proceedings: Symposium ′87, Wetlands/Peatlands (eds C.D.A.Rubec and R.P.Overend ), pp. 3–6.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. GaddN.R.1963. Surficial geology of Ottawa map‐area, Ontario and Quebec. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper62–16.
  19. GaddN.R.1977. Offlap sedimentary sequence in Champlain Sea, Ontario and Quebec. In: Current Research, Part A, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 77‐1a, pp. 379–380.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. GaddN.R.1986. Lithofacies of Leda Clay in the Ottawa basin of the Champlain Sea. In: Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 85–21.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. GoreA.J.P.1983. Introduction. In: Mires: Swamp, Bog, Fen and Moor (Ed. A.J.P.Gore ). Elsevier Science Publishing Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. GrahamR.B. and HicksW.D.1980. Some observations on the changes in value and weight of peat and peat moss with loss of moisture. International Peat Society, Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, pp. 554–558.
  23. HastedJ.B.1973. Aqueous Dielectrics. Chapman and Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. HattonL., WorthingtonM.H. and MakinJ.1986. Seismic Data Processing: Theory and Practice. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. HillP.N. and GreenH.E.1982. In situ measurement of soil permittivity and permeability. Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Australia2, 202–208.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. HoekstraP. and DelaneyA.1974. Dielectric properties of soils at UHF and microwave frequencies. Journal of Geophysical Research79, 1699–1708.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. JeglumJ.K., BoissonneauA.N. and HaavistoV.F.1974. Toward a wetland classification for Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report 0‐X‐215.
  28. KarrowP.F.1986. Quaternary geology of the Stratford‐Conestogo area, Ontario. Ontario Geological Survey, Open File Report 5605.
  29. KellerG.V.1987. Rock and mineral properties. In: Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, V.1 – Theory (Ed. M.N.Nabighian ), pp. 13–51. SEG.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. KutrubesD.L.1986. Dielectric permittivity measurements of soils saturated with hazardous fluids . M.Sc. thesis, Colorado School of Mines.
  31. KwakJ.C.T., AyubA.L. and SheppardJ.D.1986. The role of colloid science in peat dewatering: principles and dewatering studies. In: Peat and Water: Aspects of Water Retention and Dewatering in Peat (Ed. C.H.Fuchsman ). Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. LoweD.J.1985. Application of impulse radar to continuous profiling of tephra‐bearing lake sediments and peats: an initial evaluation. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics28, 667–674.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. MakarenkoG.L.1987. Electrical stratigraphy of peat deposits. In: Proceedings: Symposium ′87, Wetlands/Peatlands (eds C.D.A.Rubec and R.P.Overend ), pp. 8–14.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. McNeilJ.D.1980a. Electrical Conductivity of Soils and Rocks. Geonics Limited, Technical Note TN‐5.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. McNeillJ.D.1980b. Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity Measurements at Low Induction Numbers. Geonics Limited, Technical Note TN‐6.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. MeyerJ.J.1989. Investigation of Holocene organic sediments – a geophysical approach. International Peat Journal3, 45–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. MottR.J. and CamfieldM.1969. Palynological studies in the Ottawa Area. In: Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 69–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. National Capital Commission
    National Capital Commission1974. Proceedings of the Mer Bleue Seminar. National Capital Commission, Forest Management Institute.
  39. PlonusM.A.1978. Applied Electromagnetics. McGraw‐Hill Book Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. QuigleyR.M., GwynQ.H.J., WhiteO.L., RoweR.K., HaynesJ.E. and BohdanowiczA.1983. Leda Clay from deep boreholes at Hawkesbury, Ontario. I: Geology and geotechnique. Canadian Geotechnical Journal20, 288–298.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Remotec Applications Inc.
    Remotec Applications Inc.1982. The use of impulse radar techniques for depth profiling of peat deposits. National Research Council of Canada, Report NRCC 20982, DSS File No. 255R.31155‐1‐2630.
  42. SiegelD.I.1990. The recharge‐discharge function of wetlands near Juneau, Alaska. Part II: Geochemical investigations. Ground Water26, 580–586.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. SimsR.A., WickwareG.M. and CowellD.W.1987. Wetlands of the Southern Hudson Bay Coast in Ontario. In: Proceedings: Symposium ′87, Wetlands/Peatlands (eds C.D.A.Rubec and R.P.Overend ), pp. 435–442.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. SlavikB.1974. Methods of Studying Plant Water Relations. Academia Publishing House of the Czechoslovakia Academy of Sciences.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. SmithV.R.1992. The Paparua Landfill: hydrogeological, geophysical and hydrogeochemical investigations of groundwater contamination by leachate, Christchurch, New Zealand . Ph.D. thesis, University of Canterbury.
  46. StuchlyM.A. and StuchlyS.S.1980. Dielectric properties of biological substances – Tabulated. Journal of Microwave Power15, 19–26.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. TelfordW.M., GeldartL.P., SheriffR.E. and KeysD.A.1990. Applied Geophysics, 2nd edn.Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. TheimerB.D.1990. Principles of bog characterization using ground penetrating radar . M.Sc. thesis, University of Waterloo.
  49. TingaW.R., Voss, W.A.G. and BlosseyD.F.1973. Generalized approach to multiphase dielectric mixture theory. Journal of Applied Physics44, 3897–3902.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. TiuriM., ToikkaM., TolonenK. and MartillaI.1983. The use of radiowave probe and subsurface interface radar in peat resource inventory. In: Proceedings, Symposium on Remote Sensing in Peat and Terrain Resource Surveys, International Peat Society, pp. 131–143.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. TiuriM., ToikkaM., TolonenK. and RummukainenA.1984. Capability of new radiowave moisture probe in peat resource inventory. International Peat Society, Proceedings of the 7th International Peat Congress, v. 1, pp. 517–525.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. TolonenK., RummukainenA., ToikkaM. and MartillaI.1984. Comparison between conventional peat geological and improved electronic methods in examining economically important peatland properties. International Peat Society, Proceedings of the 7th International Peat Congress, v. 2, pp. 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. ToppG.C., DavisJ.L. and AnnanA.P.1980. Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: measurements in coaxial transmission lines. Water Resources Research16, 574–582.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. TorranceJ.K.1988. Mineralogy, pore water chemistry, and geotechnical behaviour of Champlain Sea and related sediments. In: The Late Quaternary Development of the Champlain Sea Basin (Ed. N.R.Gadd ), pp. 259–275. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 35.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. UlriksenP.1980. Investigation of peat thickness with radar. International Peat Society, Proceedings of the 6th International Peat Congress, pp. 126–129.
  56. WarnerB.G., NobesD.C. and TheimerB.D.1990. An application of ground penetrating radar to peat stratigraphy of Ellice Swamp, southwestern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.27, 932–938.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. WelsbyJ.1988. The utilisation of georadar in monitoring cutover peatlands. In: International Peat Society, Proceedings 8th International Peat Congress, Vol. 1, pp. 99–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. WilliamsG.P.1968. The thermal regime of a Sphagnum peat bog. In: International Peat Society, Proceedings of the 3rd International Peat Congress , pp. 195–200.
  59. Williams, G.P.1974. Melting of snow and ice in the Mer Bleue Sphagnum bog near Ottawa, Canada. The Canadian Field Naturalist88, 236–238.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. WongJ., RossiterJ.R., OlhoeftG.R. and StrangwayD.W.1977. Permafrost: electrical properties of the active layer measured in situ . Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences14, 582–586.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1111/j.1365-2478.1994.tb00205.x
Loading
  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error