1887
Volume 58, Issue 3
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2478

Abstract

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) modelling study, based on complex resistivity structures in a deep marine geological setting, is conducted. The study demonstrates the effects of acquisition parameters and multi‐layered resistors on CSEM responses. Three‐dimensional (3D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) grid‐modelling is used for CSEM sensitivity analysis. Interpolation of normalized CSEM responses provides attributes representing relative sensitivity of the modelled structures. Modelling results show that fine grid, 1 × 1 km receiver spacing, provides good correlations between CSEM responses and the modelled structures, irrespective of source orientation. The resolution of CSEM attributes decreases for receiver spacing >2 × 2 km, when using only in‐line data. Broadside data in the grid geometry increase data density by 100 – approximately 200% by filling in in‐line responses and improve the resolution of CSEM attributes. Optimized source orientation (i.e., oblique to the strike of an elongated resistor) improves the structural definition of the CSEM anomalies for coarse‐grid geometries (receiver spacing ≥3 × 3 km). The study also shows that a multi‐resistor anomaly is not simply the summation but a cumulative response with mutual interference between constituent resistors. The combined response of constituent resistors is approximately 50% higher than the cumulative response of the multi‐resistor for 0.5 Hz at 4000 m offset. A gradual inverse variation of offset and frequency allows differentiation of CSEM anomalies for multi‐layered resistors. Similar frequency‐offset variations for laterally persistent high‐resistivity facies show visual continuity with varying geometric expressions. 3D grid‐modelling is an effective and adequate tool for CSEM survey design and sensitivity analysis.

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2009-12-01
2020-03-29
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