Volume 58, Issue 4
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2478



We use residual moveouts measured along continuous full azimuth reflection angle gathers, in order to obtain effective horizontal transversely isotropic model parameters. The angle gathers are generated through a special angle domain imaging system, for a wide range of reflection angles and full range of phase velocity azimuths. The estimation of the effective model parameters is performed in two stages. First, the background horizontal transversely isotropic (HTI)/vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) layered model is used, along with the values of reflection angles, for converting the measured residual moveouts (or traveltime errors) into azimuthally dependent normal moveout (NMO) velocities. Then we apply a digital Fourier transform to convert the NMO velocities into azimuthal wavenumber domain, in order to obtain the effective HTI model parameters: vertical time, vertical compression velocity, Thomsen parameter delta and the azimuth of the medium axis of symmetry. The method also provides a reliability criterion of the HTI assumption. The criterion shows whether the medium possesses the HTI type of symmetry, or whether the azimuthal dependence of the residual traveltime indicates to a more complex azimuthal anisotropy. The effective model used in this approach is defined for a 1D structure with a set of HTI, VTI and isotropic layers (with at least one HTI layer). We describe and analyse the reduction of a multi‐layer structure into an equivalent effective HTI model. The equivalent model yields the same NMO velocity and the same offset azimuth on the Earth's surface as the original layered structure, for any azimuth of the phase velocity. The effective model approximates the kinematics of an HTI/VTI layered structure using only a few parameters. Under the hyperbolic approximation, the proposed effective model is exact.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Anisotropy , Inversion , Modelling , Parameter estimation and Velocity analysis
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