1887
Volume 2, Issue 1
  • E-ISSN:

Abstract

Macroscopic and microscopic drilling-induced deformation structures were documented in cores of Ypresian Ieper Group and Rupelian Boom Formation clays using macro-polished slabs and polarizing microscopy of thin sections. The cores were recovered in north Belgium from a depth of a few hundred metres by pushing a steel barrel with a cutting shoe into the non-indurated clays that are in a ductile to brittle transition state. The outer border of the clay cores was bent downwards due to the pushing action. The geometry of the drilling-induced fractures can be described as vertically stacked axisymmetrical conical fractures complexed by a general concave and undulating shape, and by fractures splaying from other fractures. At the microscopic scale (2D), the fractures are micro-faults that produce a breccia texture and which consist of thin planes, lines in 2D, of orientated clay minerals. The preferred orientation of these clay minerals in the fractures point to shear movement and explain the shiny appearance of these slickenside-like fractures when viewed in 3D. The micro-faults produce clay domains tilted with respect to each other. Recognizing exclusively drilling-induced structures helps in the selection of cores and core fragments for further laboratory testing, and may be of help in distinguishing them from regional faults or fracture systems in homogeneous clays.

This article is part of the Sustainable geological disposal and containment of radioactive waste collection available at: https://www.lyellcollection.org/topic/collections/radioactive

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1144/geoenergy2024-001
2024-04-30
2024-05-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Baligh, M.M., Azzouz, A.S. and Chin, C.-T.1987. Disturbance due to ‘ideal’ tube sampling. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 113, 739–357, https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1987)113:7(739)
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bastiaens, W., Bernier, F., Buyens, M., Demarche, M., Li, X.L., Linotte, J.-M. and Verstricht, J.2003. The Connecting Gallery. EURIDICE Internal Report 03-293. European Underground Research Infrastructure for Disposal of Nuclear Waste in a Clay Environment (EURIDICE), Brussels.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bock, H., Dehandschutter, B., Derek Martin, C., Mazurek, M., de Haller, A., Skoczylas, F. and Davy, C.A.2010. Self-Sealing of Fractures in Argillaceous Formations in the Context of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Review and Synthesis. OECD/NEA Report 6184. OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Paris.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Clayton, C.R.I. and Siddique, A.1999. Tube sampling disturbance – forgotten truths and new perspectives. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Geotechnical Engineering, 137, 127–135, https://doi.org/10.1680/gt.1999.370302
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Clayton, C.R.I., Siddique, A. and Hopper, R.J.1998. Effects of sampler design on tube sampling disturbance – numerical and analytical investigations. Géotechnique, 48, 847–867, https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1998.48.6.847
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dehandschutter, B., Vandycke, S., Sintubin, M., Vandenberghe, N., Gaviglio, P., Sizun, J.-P. and Wouters, L.2004. Microfabric of fractured Boom Clay at depth: a case study of brittle-ductile transitional clay behaviour. Applied Clay Science, 26, 389–401, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2003.12.013
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dehandschutter, B., Gaviglio, P., Sizun, J.P., Sintubin, M., Vandycke, S., Vandenberghe, N. and Wouters, L.2005a. Volumetric matrix strain related to intraformational faulting in argillaceous sediments. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 162, 801–813, https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-764904-093
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dehandschutter, B., Vandycke, S., Sintubin, M., Vandenberghe, N. and Wouters, L.2005b. Brittle fractures and ductile shear bands in argillaceous sediments: inferences from Oligocene Boom Clay (Belgium). Journal of Structural Geology, 27/6, 1095–1112, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2004.08.014
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dizier, A., Chen, G., Li, X., Leysen, J., Verstricht, J., Toullinos, I. and Rypens, J.2016. The Start-Up Phase of the PRACLAY Heater Test. EURIDICE Report EUR_16_025. European Underground Research Infrastructure for Disposal of Nuclear Waste in a Clay Environment (EURIDICE), Brussels.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Henriet, J.P., De Batist, M., Van Vaerenbergh, W. and Verschuren, M.1990. Seismic facies and clay tectonic features of the Ypresian clay in the southern North Sea. Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, 97, 457–472.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Horseman, S.T., Winter, M.G. and Entwistle, D.C.1987. Geotechnical Characterisation of Boom Clay in Relation to Disposal of Radioactive Waste. EU Report EUR 10987 EN. European Commission Publications Office, Luxembourg.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Huggett, J.M. and Knox, R.W.O’.B.2006. Clay mineralogy of the Tertiary onshore and offshore strata of the British Isles. Clay Minerals, 41, 5–46, https://doi.org/10.1180/0009855064110195
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Kallstenius, T.1958. Mechanical Disturbances in Clay Samples Taken with Piston Samplers. Proceedings of the Royal Swedish Geotechnical Institute, 16.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ladd, C.C. and De Groot, D.J.2004. Recommended practice for soft ground site characterization: Arthur Casagrande Lecture. In: Culligan, P.J., Einstein, H.H. and Whittle, A.J. (eds) Soil and Rock America 2003: Proceedings of the 12th PanAmerican Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 1. Glückauf, Essen, Germany, 3–57.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. La Rochelle, P., Sarrailh, J., Tavenas, F., Roy, M. and Leroueil, S.1981. Causes of sampling disturbance and design of a new sampler for sensitive soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 18, 52–66, https://doi.org/10.1139/t81-006
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Mertens, J., Vandenberghe, N., Wouters, L. and Sintubin, M.2003. The origin and development of joints in the Boom Clay Formation (Rupelian) in Belgium. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 216, 309–321, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.216.01.20
  17. Nguyen, X.P., Cui, Y.J., Tang, A.M., Li, S.L. and Wouters, L.2014. Physical and microstructural impacts on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ypresian clays. Applied Clay Sciences, 102, 172–185, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.09.038
    [Google Scholar]
  18. ONDRAF/NIRAS2013. ONDRAF/NIRAS Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) Plan for the Geological Disposal of High-Level and/or Long-Lived Radioactive Waste Including Irradiated Fuel if Considered as Waste. NIROND-TR 2013-12E. Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (NIRAS/ONDRAF), Brussels.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Owen, G.1987. Deformation processes in unconsolidated sands. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 29, 11–24, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1987.029.01.02
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Romero, E., Sau, N., Lima, A., Van Baelen, H., Sillen, X. and Li, X.2016. Studying the thermal conductivity of a deep Eocene clay formation: Direct measurements vs back-analysis results. Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment, 8, 62–75, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gete.2016.10.005
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sau, N., Romero, E. and Van Baelen, H.2020. Restoring initial conditions in a deep argillaceous formation with induced suction on retrieval. E3S Web of Conferences, 195, https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202019504012
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Steurbaut, E., De Ceukelaire, M., Lanckacker, T., Matthijs, J., Stassen, P., Van Baelen, H. and Vandenberghe, N.2017. The Ieper Group, 09/01/2017. National Commission for Stratigraphy – Belgium, http://ncs.naturalsciences.be/lithostratigraphy/Ieper-Group
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Vandenberghe, N.2017. Tectonic and climatic signals in the Oligocene sediments of the Southern North-Sea Basin. Geologica Belgica, 20, 105–123, https://doi.org/10.20341/gb.2017.007
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Vandenberghe, N. and Wouters, L.2024. The Rupel Group. National Commission for Stratigraphy – Belgium, http://ncs.naturalsciences.be/lithostratigraphy/Rupel-Group
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Vandenberghe, N., Laga, P., Herman, J. and Baccaert, J.1990. Lithological description of the Knokke well. In: Laga, P. and Vandenberghe, N. (eds) The Knokke Well (11 E 138) with a Description of the Den Haan (22W/276) and Oostduinkerke (35E/142) Wells. Toelichtende Verhandelingen voor de Geologische en Mijnkaarten van België,29, 9–17.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Vandenberghe, N., De Craen, M. and Wouters, L.2014. The Boom Clay Geology from Sedimentation to Present-Day Occurrence. A Review. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Belgium, 60.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Villar, M.V., Armand, G., Conil, N., de Lesquen, Ch., Herold, Ph., Simo, E., Mayor, J.C., Dizier, A., Li, X., Chen, G., Leupin, O., Niskanen, M., Bailey, M., Thompson, S., Svensson, D., Sellin, P. and Hausmannova, L.2020. Initial State-of-the-Art on THM behaviour of i) Buffer clay materials and of ii) Host clay materials. Deliverable D7.1 of HITEC project, EURAD, Horizon 2020. No 847593, 214 pp.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Zeelmaekers, E.2011. Computerized Qualitative and Quantitative Clay Mineralogy: Introduction and Application to Known Geological Cases. Doctoral dissertation, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, https://lirias.kuleuven.be/handle/123456789/306162
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Zeelmaekers, E., Honty, M. et al.2015. Qualitative and quantitative mineralogical composition of the Rupelian Boom Clay in Belgium. Clay Minerals, 50, 249–272, https://doi.org/10.1180/claymin.2015.050.2.08
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1144/geoenergy2024-001
Loading
/content/journals/10.1144/geoenergy2024-001
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error