1887
Volume 27, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 1354-0793
  • E-ISSN:
PDF

Abstract

Naturally fractured reservoirs are important contributors to global petroleum reserves and production. Existing classification schemes for fractured reservoirs do not adequately differentiate between certain types of fractured reservoirs, leading to difficulty in understanding fundamental controls on reservoir performance and recovery efficiency. Three hundred naturally fractured reservoirs were examined to define a new classification scheme that is independent of the type of fracturing and describes fundamentally different matrix types, rock properties, fluid storage and flow characteristics.

This study categorises fractured reservoirs in three groups: (1) Type 1: characterized by a tight matrix where fractures and solution-enhanced fracture porosity provide both storage capacity and fluid-flow pathways; (2) Type 2: characterized by a macroporous matrix which provides the primary storage capacity where fractures and solution-enhanced fracture porosity provide essential fluid-flow pathways; and (3) Type 3: characterized by a microporous matrix which provides all storage capacity where fractures only provide essential fluid-flow pathways. Differentiation is made between controls imparted by inherent natural conditions, such as rock and fluid properties and natural drive mechanisms, and human controls, such as choice of development scheme and reservoir management practices.

The classification scheme presented here is based on reservoir and production characteristics of naturally fractured reservoirs and represents a refinement of existing schemes. This refinement allows accurate comparisons to be made between analogous fractured reservoirs, and trends and outliers in reservoir performance to be identified. Case histories provided herein demonstrate the practical application of this new classification scheme and the benefits that arise when applying it to the understanding of naturally fractured reservoirs.

[open-access]

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2020-079
2021-03-08
2021-07-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/pg/27/2/petgeo2020-079.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2020-079&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aguilera, R.
    1983. Exploring for naturally fractured reservoirs. SPWLA 24th Annual Logging Symposium, 27–30 June, Calgary, Albert, 1–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 1995. Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. PennWell Publishing Co., Tulsa, OK.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Allan, J.
    and Sun, S.Q. 2003. Controls on recovery factor in fractured reservoirs: lessons learned from 100 fractured fields. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 5–8 October, Denver, Colorado, USA, SPE 84590.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Al Salhi, M., Al Maimani, A.
    and Makel, G.H. 2001. A switch from verticals to dual lateral producers accelerate oil production and reduces Unit Technical Cost (UTC) for Natih Field. SPE Middle East Oil Show, March 2001, Manama, Bahrain, SPE Paper 68127.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Belaidi, A., Bonter, D.A., Slightam, C.
    and Trice, R.C. 2016. The Lancaster field: progress in opening the UK's fractured basement play. In: Bowman, M. and Levell, B. (eds) Petroleum Geology of NW Europe: 50 Years of Learning — Proceedings of the 8th Petroleum Geology Conference. Geological Society, London, Petroleum Geology Conference Series, 8, 385–398, https://doi.org/10.1144/PGC8.20
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brewster, J., Dangerfield, J.
    and Farrell, H. 1986. The geology and geophysics of the Ekofisk Field waterflood. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 3, 139–169, https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-8172(86)90025-5
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Christian, T.M., Currie, J.C., Lantz, T.G., Rismyhr, O.
    and Snow, S.E. 1993. Reservoir management at Ekofisk field. SPE Annual Technical Conference, Houston, SPE 26623.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Dang, C.T.Q., Chen, Z., Nguyen, N.T.B., Bae, W.
    and Phung, T.H. 2011. Lessons learned and experiences gained in developing the waterflooding concept of a fractured basement-granite reservoir - a 20 year case study. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 50, 10–23, https://doi.org/10.2118/137561-PA
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Horn, M.K.
    1990. Renqiu field. In: Beaumont, E.A. and Foster, N.H. (eds) Structural Traps II: AAPG Treatise of Petroleum Geology, Atlas of Oil and Gas Fields. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 227–252.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Lang, L.D., Loi, C.M., Luong, D.H., Toan, N.M.
    and Tuan, P.A. 2008. A proposal to study the production of White Tiger basement reservoir under a new reservoir pressure regime to enhance oil recovery. Proceedings 2nd International Fractured Basement Reservoir Conference, Vung Tau, 291–296.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. McNaughton, D.A.
    and Garb, F.A. 1975. Finding and evaluating petroleum accumulations in fractured reservoir rock. In: Cameron, V.S. (ed.) Exploration and Economics of the Petroleum Industry. Matthew Bender and Co., 13, 23–49.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. McQuillan, H.
    1985. Gachsaran and Bibi Hakimeh fields. In: Roehl, P.O. and Choquette, P.W. (eds) Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs. Springer-Verlag, New York, 513–523.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Nelson, R.A.
    1979. Natural fracture systems: description and classification. AAPG Bulletin, 63, 2214–2232.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 1985. Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs - Contributions in Petroleum Geology and Engineering, 1. Gulf Professional Publishing, Houston.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 2001. Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, 2nd edn. Gulf Professional Publishing, Houston.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Orlopp, D.E.
    1988. Casablanca Oilfield, Spain - a karsted carbonate trap at the shelf edge. Proceedings Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, OTC Paper 5734, 441–448.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Saidi, A.M.
    1996. Twenty years of gas injection history into well-fractured Haft Kel Field (Iran). SPE International Petroleum Conference of Mexico, Villahermosa, SPE 35309, 123–133.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Santiago-Acevedo, J.
    1980. Giant fields of the southern zone – Mexico. In: Halbouty, M.T. (ed.) Giant Oil and Gas Fields of the Decade l968–1978. AAPG Memoirs , 30, 339–385.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. and Mejia-Dautt, O. 1980. Giant fields in the southeast of Mexico. Transactions - Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, 30, 1–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Spence, G.H., Couples, G.D., Bevan, T.G., Auilera, R., Cosgrove, J.W., Daniel, J.-M.
    and Redfern, J. 2014. Advances in the study of naturally fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs: a broad integrated interdisciplinary applied topic. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 374, 1–22, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP374.19
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Stearns, D.W.
    and Friedman, M. 1972. Reservoirs in fractured rock. In: King, R.E. (ed.) Stratigraphic Oil and Gas Fields. AAPG Memoir s, 16, 82–106.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Sun, S.Q., Pollitt, D.A., Wu, S.
    and Leary, D.A. 2021. Use of global analogues to improve E&P decision quality. AAPG Bulletin, https://doi.org/10.1306/10262019250[in press].
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Van Dikjum, C.E.
    and Walker, T. 1991. Fractured reservoir simulation and field development, Natih Field, Oman. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, October 1991, Dallas, Texas, SPE Paper 22917, 309–320.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Van Golf-Racht, T.D.
    1982. Fundamentals of Fractured Reservoir Engineering: Development in Petroleum Science, 12. Elsevier Scientific Publication Company, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Withjack, E.M.
    1985. Analysis of naturally fractured reservoirs with bottom water drive - Nido A and B fields, offshore Northwest Palawan, Philippines. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 37, 1481–1490, https://doi.org/10.2118/12019-PA
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Xuan, V.T., Tuan, V.N., Tuan, N., Kha, X.N., Ngoc, B.T.
    and Thanh, Q.T. 2018. Assessing the impact of groundwater intrusion to production efficiency and proposing solutions to enhance oil recovery from fractured basement reservoir in Su Du Den Field, offshore Vietnam. IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference, 27–29 August, Bangkok, Thailand, IADC/SPE-191078-MS.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Yu, Z.
    and Li, G. 1989. Development of Renqiu fractured carbonate oil pools by water injection. In: Mason, J.F. and Dickey, P.A. (eds) Oil Field Development Techniques: Proceedings of the Daqing International Meeting 1982. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 28, 175–191.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Zhang, M.K.
    and Zhang, H.P. 1991. Feasibility study on cessation of water injection, plugging of large fractures and improvement of recovery factor during late stage development of the Liubei Wumishan oil pool. Paleokarst, 4, 61–66[in Chinese].
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2020-079
Loading
/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2020-079
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error