1887
Volume 27, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 1354-0793
  • E-ISSN:

Abstract

Natural open fractures are present in sidewall cores and in whole-core samples from pre-salt reservoirs in the licence block BM-C-33 in the Campos Basin, Brazil. Open fractures are also observed in borehole image logs, and fracture densities are in general high. The highest density of open fractures is seen in the damage zones above and below larger cavities (amalgamated cavern damage zones (ACDZs)). Outside the ACDZs the fracture density is high in silicified carbonates, where it tends to increase with decreasing porosity. Clean dolomites are less fractured than the silicified interval, while the less brittle argillaceous dolomites have the lowest fracture density. Some fractures appear vuggy on borehole image logs, and fracture densities are high close to vugs and larger cavities. The positive correlation between fractures and vugs is caused by flow of dissolving fluids through open fractures, and fracturing at stress concentrations around vugs. Two major fault zones have been interpreted from borehole image logs that have damage zones with very high fracture density. The well-test permeability is much greater than the matrix permeability estimated from sidewall core and log measurements. This excess permeability is attributed to fractures, in combination with caverns and intervals with frequent vugs.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2020-125
2021-05-28
2021-12-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Angerer, E., Lanfrachi, P. and Rogers, S.F
    . 2003. Fractured reservoir modeling from seismic to simulator: a reality?The Leading Edge, 22, 684–689, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1599697
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bahniuk, A.M., Anjos, S., Franca, A.B., Matsuda, N., Eiler, J., McKwnzie, J.A. and Vasconcelos, C.
    2015. Development of microbial carbonates in the Lower Cretaceous Codo Formation (north-east Brazil): implications for interpretation of microbialite facies associations and palaeoenvironmental conditions. Sedimentology, 62, 155–181, https://doi.org/10.1111/sed.12144
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bisdom, K., Gauthier, B.D.M., Bertotti, G. and Hardebol, N.J.
    2014. Calibrating discrete fracture-network models with a carbonate three-dimensional outcrop fracture network: implications for naturally fractured reservoir modelling. AAPG Bulletin, 98, 1351–1376, https://doi.org/10.1306/02031413060
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bourbiaux, B.
    2010. Fractured reservoir simulation: a challenging and rewarding issue. Oil and Gas Science and Technology – Revue de IFP, 65, 227–238, https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2009063
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bubeck, A., Walker, R.J., Healy, D., Dobbs, M. and Holwell, D.A.
    2017. Pore geometry as a control on rock strength. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 457, 38–48, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.09.050
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cainelli, C. and Mohriak, W.U.
    1999. Some remarks on the evolution of sedimentary basins along the Eastern Brazilian continental margin. Episodes, 22, 206–216, https://doi.org/10.18814/epiiugs/1999/v22i3/008
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Calegari, S.S., Neves, M.A., Guadagnin, F., França, G.S. and Vincentelli, M.G.C.
    2016. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 69, 226–242, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsames.2016.04.005
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Carminatti, M., Dias, J.L. and Wolff, B.
    2009. From turbidites to carbonates: Breaking paradigms in deep waters. Paper OTC 20124 presented at theOffshore Technology Conference, 4–7 May 2009, Houston, Texas, USA.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Clavier, R.M.
    2018. An application to field development of permeability conduits characterization and distribution using geological scenario calibrated with pressure transient analysis data – A Brazilian Pre-Salt lacustrine carbonate field example. Abstract presented atThe Geology of Fractured Reservoirs Conference, 24–25 October 2018, London, UK.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Correa, R., Pereira, C. et al.
    2019. Integrated seismic–log–core–test fracture characterization and modelling, Barra Velha Formation, Pre-Salt of Santos Basin. Search and Discovery Article #90350, AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, 19–22 May 2019, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Cosgrove, J.W
    . 2001. Hydraulic fracturing during the formation and deformation of a basin: a factor in the dewatering of low-permeability sediments. AAPG Bulletin, 85, 737–748, https://doi.org/10.1306/8626C997-173B-11D7-8645000102C1865D
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Davatzes, N. C.
    , and Hickman, S. H. 2010. Stress, fracture, and fluid-flow analysis using acoustic and electrical image logs in hot fractured granites of the Coso geothermal field, California, U.S.A. AAPG Memoirs , 92, 259–293.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Vieira de Luca, P.H., Matias, H. et al.
    2017. Breaking barriers and paradigms in presalt exploration: the Pão de Açúcar discovery (offshore Brazil). AAPG Memoirs , 113, 177–194.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Vieira de Luca, P.H., Waldum. A. et al.
    2019. Porosity characterization of complex silicified carbonates reservoirs of BM-C-33. Paper presented at theFirst EAGE Workshop on Pre-Salt Reservoir: From Exploration to Production, 5–6 December 2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fernandez-Ibanez, F., DeGraff, J.M. and Ibrayev, F.
    2018. Integrating borehole image logs with core: a method to enhance subsurface fracture characterization. AAPG Bulletin, 102, 1067–1090, https://doi.org/10.1306/0726171609317002
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fernandez-Ibanez, F., Bowen, M., Jones, G. and Mimoun, F
    . 2019. Excess permeability in the Brazil pre-salt: non-matrix types and diagnostic indicators. Extended abstract presented at theFirst EAGE Workshop on Pre-Salt Reservoir: From Exploration to Production, 5–6 December 2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fetter, M.
    2009. The role of basement tectonic reactivation on the structural evolution of Campos Basin, offshore Brazil: evidence from 3D seismic analysis and section restoration. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 26, 873–886, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2008.06.005
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Guerriero, V., Mazzoli, S., Iannace, A., Vitale, S., Caravetta, A. and Strauss, C.
    2013. A permeability model for naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 40, 115–134, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2012.11.002
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Herlinger, R., Zambonato, E. E. and de Ros, L.F.
    2017. Influence of diagenesis on the quality of lower Cretaceous pre-salt lacustrine carbonate reservoirs from northern Campos basin, offshore Brazil. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 87, 1285–1313, https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2017.70
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hickman, R.G. and Dunham, J.B.
    1992. Controls on the development of fractured reservoirs in the Monterey Formation of central California. Norwegian Petroleum Society Special Publications , 1, 343–353.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hunt, D.W., Fitchen, W.M. and Kosa, E.
    2003. Syndepositional deformation of the Permian Capitan reef carbonate platform, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, USA. Sedimentary Geology, 154, 89–126, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0037-0738(02)00104-5
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hunt, D.W., Vieira de Luca, P.H. et al.
    2019. A very different Barremian–Aptian lacustine pre-salt facies association: Biotic self-organisation in BMC-33, outer basin Campos Basin, Brazil. Extended abstract presented at theFirst EAGE Workshop on Pre-Salt Reservoir: From Exploration to Production, 5–6 December 2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jonoud, S., Wennberg, O.P, Larsen, J.A. and Casini, G.
    2013. Capturing the effect of fracture heterogeneity on multiphase flow during fluid injection. SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 16, 194–208, https://doi.org/10.2118/147834-PA
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ketcham, R.A. and Carlson, W.D.
    2001. Acquisition, optimization and interpretation of X-ray computed tomographic imagery: applications to the geosciences. Computers & Geosciences, 27, 381–400, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-3004(00)00116-3
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kulander, B.R., Dean, S.L. and Ward, B.J., Jr.
    1990. Fractured Core Analysis: Interpretation, Logging and Use of Natural and Induced Fractures in Core. AAPG Methods in Exploration Series, 8.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lapponi, F., Dickson, T. and Hunt, D.
    2019. Low and high temperature silica diagenesis in a giant pre-salt reservoir: BM-C-33, Campos Basin, Brazil. Paper presented at theFirst EAGE Workshop on Pre-Salt Reservoir: From Exploration to Production, 5–6 December 2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. LimaB.E. and De Ros, L.F.
    2019. Deposition, diagenetic and hydrothermal processes in the Aptian Pre-Salt lacustrine carbonate reservoirs of the northern Campos Basin, offshore Brazil. Sedimentary Geology, 383, 55–81, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2019.01.006
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lima, B.E., Ribeiro Tedeschi, L., Silva Pestilho, A.L., Ventural Santos, R., Cabral Vazquez, J., Poley Guzzo, J.V. and De Ros, L.F.
    2020. Deep-burial hydrothermal alteration of the Pre-Salt carbonate reservoirs from northern Campos Basin, offshore Brazil: evidence from petrography, fluid inclusions, Sr, C and O isotopes. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 113, 104143, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.104143
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lorenz, J.C. and Cooper, S.P.
    2018. Atlas of Natural and Induced Fractures in Core. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lu, Z., Chen, H. et al.
    2017. Petrography, fluid inclusion and isotope studies in Ordovician carbonate reservoirs in the Shunnan area, Tarim basin, NW China: implications for the nature and timing of silicification. Sedimentary Geology, 359, 29–43, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2017.08.002
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Lymer, G., Cresswell, D.J.F. et al.
    2019. 3D development of detachment faulting during continental breakup. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 515, 90–99, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2019.03.018
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Meisling, K.E., Cobbold, P.R. and Mount, V.S.
    2001. Segmentation of an obliquely rifted margin, Campos and Santos basins, southeastern Brazil. AAPG Bulletin, 85, 1903–1924, https://doi.org/10.1306/8626D0A9-173B-11D7-8645000102C1865D
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mejia, S., Quevedo, R. and Roehl, D.
    2019. Hydro-mechanical modelling of naturally fractured reservoirs. Paper ARMA 19–2031 presented at the53rd US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, 23–26 June 2019, New York, USA.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Menezes, C. P., Bezerra, F. H.R., Balsamo, F., Mozafari, M., Vieira, M. M., Srivastava, N. K. and de Castro, D. L.
    2019. Hydrothermal silicification along faults affecting carbonate–sandstone units and its impact on reservoir quality, Potiguar Basin, Brazil. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 110, 198–217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2019.07.018
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Menezes de Jesus, C., Martins Compan, A.L and Surmas, R.
    2016. Permeability estimation using ultrasonic borehole image logs in dual-porosity carbonate reservoirs. Petrophysics, 57, 620–637.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Menezes de Jesus, C., Martins Compan, A.L., Pereira Coelho, J.R., Espinola de Sa SlilveiraA. and Blauth, A.
    2019. Evaluation of karst porosity morphological properties through borehole image logs – Correlation with dynamic reservoir properties from a presalt oil field. Paper OTC-29722-MS presented at theOffshore Technology Conference Brasil, 29–31 October 2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, https://doi.org/10.4043/29722-MS
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Mohriak, W.U., Mello, M.R., Dewey, J.F. and Maxwell, J.R.
    1990. Petroleum geology of the Campos Basin, offshore Brazil. Geological Society, London, Special Publications , 50, 119–141, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1990.050.01.07
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Mohriak, W.U., Szatmari, P. and Anjos, S.
    2012. Salt: geology and tectonics of selected Brazilian basins in their global context. Geological Society, London, Special Publications , 363, 131–158, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP363.7
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Moore, C.H.
    2001. Carbonate Reservoirs: Porosity Evaluation and Diagenesis in a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework. Developments in Sedimentology, 55.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Müller, C., Siegesmund, S. and Blum, P.
    2010. Evaluation of the representative elementary volume (REV) of a fractured geothermal sandstone reservoir. Environmental Earth Sciences, 61, 1713–1724, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-010-0485-7
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Narr, W.
    1991. Fracture density in the deep subsurface: techniques with application to Point Arguello Oil Field. AAPG Bulletin, 75, 1300–1323.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Narr, W., Schechter, D.W. and Thompson, L.B.
    2006. Naturally Fractured Reservoir Characterization. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Ricardson, TX.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Nelson, R.A.
    2001. Geological Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. 2nd edn. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Packard, J.J., Al-Aasm, I., Samson, I., Berger, Z. and Davies, J.
    2001. A Devonian hydrothermal chert reservoir: the 225  bcf Parkland field, British Columbia, Canada. AAPG Bulletin, 85, 51–84, https://doi.org/10.1306/8626c75d-173b-11d7-8645000102c1865d
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Ramaker, E.R., Goldstein, R.H., Franseen, E.K. and Watney, W.L.
    2015. What controls porosity in cherty fine-grained carbonate reservoir rocks? Impact of stratigraphy, unconformities, structural setting and hydrothermal fluid flow: Mississippian, SE Kansas. Geological Society, London, Special Publications , 406, 179–208, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP406.2
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Rodgers, S., Enachescu, C., Trice, R. and Buer, K.
    2007. Integrating discrete fracture network models and pressure transient data for testing conceptual fracture models of the Valhall chalk reservoir, Norwegian North Sea. Geological Society, London, Special Publications , 270, 193–204, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2007.270.01.13
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Roehl, D., Quevedo, R. and Firme, P.
    2019. Forecasting geomechanical behaviour in pre-salt fields. Extended abstract presented at theFirst EAGE Workshop on Pre-Salt Reservoir: From Exploration to Production, 5–6 December 2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Saka, G., Troth, I. et al.
    2019. Fast model update and scenario based modelling for decision making in a fast track pre-salt development. Paper presented at theFirst EAGE Workshop on Pre-Salt Reservoir: From Exploration to Production, 5–6 December 2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Saller, A., Rushton, S., Buambua, L., Inman, K., McNeil, R. and Dickson, J.A.D.
    2016. Presalt stratigraphy and depositional systems in the Kwanza Basin, offshore Angola. AAPG Bulletin, 100, 1135–1164, https://doi.org/10.1306/02111615216
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Salomão, M. C., Marçon, D. R., Rosa, M. B., de Salles Pessoa, T. C. and Capeleiro Pinto, A. C.
    2015. Broad strategy to face with complex reservoirs: Expressive results of production in pre-salt area, offshore Brasil. Paper OTC-25712 presented at theOffshore Technology Conference, 4–7 May 2015, Houston, Texas, USA, https://doi.org/10.4043/25712-MS
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Sibson, R.H.
    2004. Controls on maximum fluid overpressure defining conditions for mesozonal mineralisation. Journal of Structural Geology, 26, 1127–1136, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2003.11.003
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Stanton, N., Kusznir, N., Gordon, A. and Schmitt, R
    . 2019. Architecture and tectono-magmatic evolution of the Campos Rifted Margin: control of OCT structure by basement inheritance. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 100, 43–59, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.10.043
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Tamara, J., McClay, K.R. and Hodgson, N.
    2020. Crustal structure of the central sector of the NE Brazilian equatorial margin. Geological Society, London, Special Publications , 476, 163–191, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP476-2019-54
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Terzaghi, R.
    1965. Sources of errors in joint surveys. Geotechnique, 15, 287–304, https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.1965.15.3.287
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Tritlla, J., Esteban, M., Loma, R., Mattos, A., Sánchez, V., Boix, C. and Levresse, G.
    2018. Carbonates that are no more: Silicified pre-salt oil reservoirs in Campos Basin (Brazil). Search and Discovery Article #90323, AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, 20–23 May 2018, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Tritlla, J., Esteban, M. et al.
    2019. Where have most of the carbonates gone? Silicified Aptian pre-salt microbial (?) carbonates in South Atlantic basins (Brazil and Angola). Paper T-28 presented at the16th International Meeting of Carbonate Sedimentologists, Bathurst Meeting, 9–11 July 2019, Mallorca, Spain.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Unternehr, P., Peron-Pinvidic, G, Mantshal, G. and Sutra, E.
    2010. Hyper-extended crust in the South Atlantic: in search of a model. Petroleum Geoscience, 16, 207–215, https://doi.org/10.1144/1354-079309-904
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Wennberg, O.P. and Rennan, L.
    2017. A brief introduction to the use of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for analysis of natural deformation structures in reservoir rocks. Geological Society, London, Special Publications , 459, 101–120, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP459.10
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Wennberg, O.P., Casini, G., Jonoud, S. and Peacock, D.C.P.
    2016. The characteristics of open fractures in carbonate reservoirs and their impact on fluid flow: a discussion. Petroleum Geoscience, 22, 91–104, https://doi.org/10.1144/petgeo2015-003
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Wennberg, O.P., McQueen, G., Vieira de Luca, P.H., Hunt, D., Chandler, A.S., WaldumA. and Lapponi, F.
    2019. Open fractures in pre-salt reservoirs in the Campos Basin: examples from silicified carbonates in BM-C-33. Paper presented at theFirst EAGE Workshop on Pre-Salt Reservoir: From Exploration to Production, 5–6 December 2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Winter, W.R., Jahnert, R.J. and França, A.B.
    2007. Bacia de Campos. Boletim de Geociências da Petrobras, 15, 511–529.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Winterleitner, G., Le Heron, D.P., Mapani, B., Vining, B.A. and McCaffrey, K.J.W.
    2015. Styles, origins and implications of syndepositional deformation structures in Ediacaran microbial carbonates (Nama Basin, Namibia). Geological Society, London, Special Publications , 418, 87–109, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP418.12
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Wu, Y.-S., Di, Y., Kang, Z. and Fakcharoenphol, P.
    2011. A multi-continuum model for simulating single-phase and multiphase flow in naturally fractured reservoirs. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering,78, 13–22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.05.004
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Yose, L.A., Brown, S., Davis, T.L., Eiben, T., Kompanic, G.S. and Maxwell, S.R.
    2001. 3-D geologic model of a fractured carbonate reservoir, Norman Wells Field, NWT, Canada. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 49, 86–116, https://doi.org/10.2113/49.1.86
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2020-125
Loading
/content/journals/10.1144/petgeo2020-125
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error