1887
Volume 41, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0263-5046
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2397

Abstract

Summary

Monitoring of time-lapse changes in gravity has been carried out for decades, and measurement repeatability with relative spring gravimeters has in recent years improved to 0.6–2 µGal (standard deviation) for area surveys. This is better than often cited vendor specification. Gravimeters based on other physical principles offer high absolute accuracy or improved time-lapse sensitivity. All these may open possibilities for monitoring smaller and deeper subsurface changes and over shorter time intervals, with applications in hydrocarbon and geothermal production, gas and CO storage, hydrology, volcanology and more. Survey design and data processing are integral parts of a program. Sensor redundancy and repeat measurements provide opportunities for in-situ calibrations. An example from a gas accumulation shows a reduction in gravity of about 3 µGal and subsidence of 5–6 mm over 8 years. Both signals are clearly above the noise level and are likely to have been caused by production from a neighbouring structure. The information can quantify the amount of reservoir pore pressure drop, size of gas cap expansion and vertical movements of the gas-liquid contact to a precision well below 1 m.

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2023-03-01
2024-06-14
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