Volume 41, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0263-5046
  • E-ISSN: 1365-2397



A key step toward reducing the risks and uncertainties associated with hydrocarbon exploration in carbonate rocks is to assess the prospects of using multiple methods. Accordingly, I introduced and developed a novel template for fluid type discrimination and detection in the extended elastic impedance (EEI) domain based on well data and seismic data. To this end, fluid substitution modelling was performed by formulating different fluid type scenarios (brine, oil, and gas) to utilise a rock physics model with unlimited pore types. These scenarios were subsequently converted to EEI trends and expressed as functions of intercept-gradient coordinate rotation angle (χ angle) to form EEI templates. The obtained templates were successfully verified against well-log data at a blind well and also by ultrasonic measurements on core samples using a triaxial cell. Next, fluid type detection was performed on prestack migrated seismic data that was originally acquired over a real carbonate reservoir with complex pore types. For this purpose, a low-frequency model was built and wavelet extraction was performed at corresponding χ to obtain an EEI cube through inversion. The obtained results were interpreted considering the proposed template, leading to the delineation of the hydrocarbon-bearing zone. The results were further verified based on water saturation log at a blind well drilled on the basis of interpretation of seismic data, simultaneous inversion and the available geological information. A big advantage of the EEI template over conventional EEI analysis and simultaneous inversion is that it considers more than one window, which can provide for improved accuracy and reliability in fluid detection in carbonate rocks.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Aki, K. and Richards, P. [1980]. Quantitative seismology: Theory and methods: W.H. Freeman and Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aleardi, M. [2018]. Estimating petrophysical reservoir properties through extended elastic impedance inversion: applications to off-shore and on-shore reflection seismic data. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, 15(5).
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ball, V., Blangy, J.P. Schiott, C. and Chaveste, A. [2014]. Relative rock physics. The Leading Edge, 33, 276–286, doi: 10.1190/tle33030276.1.
    https://doi.org/10.1190/tle33030276.1 [Google Scholar]
  4. Connolly, P. [1999]. Elastic impedance. The Leading Edge, 18, 438–452, doi:10.1190/1.1438307.
    https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1438307 [Google Scholar]
  5. Connolly, P. [2017]. Chi, 79th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, Extended Abstracts, Tu A3 03. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201700825.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Florez, J.M. and Kuzmin, S. [2015]. Rock Physics Templates in AI-GI and Extended Elastic Impedance Domains, SEG, Expanded Abstracts. 3295–3299.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hampson, D.P., Russell, B.H. and Bankhead, B. [2005]. Simultaneous inversion of prestack seismic data: 75th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 1633–1636, doi: 10.1190/1.2148008.
    https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2148008 [Google Scholar]
  8. Hicks, G.J. and Francis, A. [2006]. Extended elastic impedance and its relation to AVO crossplotting and Vp/Vs: 68th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, incorporating SPE EUROPEC, Extended Abstracts, P056, doi:10.3997/2214‑4609.201402386.
    https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201402386 [Google Scholar]
  9. Lucia, F.J. [2007]. Carbonate Reservoir Characterization. An Integrated Approach, Second Edition: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kuster, G.T. and Toksöz, M.N. [1974]. Velocity and attenuation of seismic waves in two‐phase media: part i. theoretical formulations. Geophysics, 39(5), 587–606.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Malki, M., Rasouli, V., Saberi, M., Mellal, I., Ozotta, O., Sennaoui, B. and Chellal, H.A.K. [2022]. Effect of Mineralogy, Pore Geometry, and Fluid Type on the Elastic Properties of the Bakken Formation, 56th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, doi: 10.56952/ARMA‑2022‑0147.
    https://doi.org/10.56952/ARMA-2022-0147 [Google Scholar]
  12. Mirzakhanian, M., Sharifi, J., Sokooti, M.R. and Mondol, N.H. [2017]. Sensitivity analysis of multi-angle extended elastic impedance (MEEI) to fluid content. A carbonate reservoir case study from an Iranian Oil field: 3rd Seminar Petroleum Geophysical Exploration.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ødegaard, E. and Avseth, P. [2003]. Interpretation of Elastic Inversion Results Using Rock Physics Templates. 65th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, Extended Abstracts, E-17.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Pendrel, J. [2015]. Low frequency models for seismic inversions: Strategies for success: 85th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 2703–2707, doi:10.1190/segam2015‑5843272.1.
    https://doi.org/10.1190/segam2015-5843272.1 [Google Scholar]
  15. Sharifi, J. and Mirzakhanian, M. [2019]. Full-angle extended elastic impedance. Interpretation, 7(4), T869–T885. T869–T885. doi: https://doi.org/10.1190/INT-2018-0219.1.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Sharifi, J., Moghaddas, N.H., Lashkaripour, G.R., Javaherian, A. and Mirzakhanian, M. [2019]. Application of extended elastic impedance in seismic geomechanics. Geophysics, 84(3), R429–R446, doi: https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2018-0242.1.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Sharifi, J. [2021]. Extended Elastic Impedance Template, 82nd EAGE Conference & Exhibition, Extended Abstracts. doi: https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.202011832.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Sharifi, J. [2022]. Multi-pore rock physics model: An intelligent approach for carbonate rocks. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 218, 111002, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2022.111002.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Sharma, R.K. and Chopra, S. [2015]. Estimation of density from seismic data without long offsets – A novel approach: 85th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 2708–2712, doi: 10.1190/segam2015‑5851566.1.
    https://doi.org/10.1190/segam2015-5851566.1 [Google Scholar]
  20. Shuey, R.T. [1985] A simplification of the Zoeppritz equations. Geophysics, 50, 609–614, doi: 10.1190/1.1441936.
    https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1441936 [Google Scholar]
  21. Stovas, A. and Landro, M. [2005]. Fluid-pressure discrimination in anisotropic reservoir rocks – A sensitivity study. Geophysics, 30, 1–11.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Whitcombe, D.N., Connolly, P.A. Reagan, R.L. and Redshaw, T.C. [2002]. Extended elastic impedance for fluid and lithology prediction. Geophysics, 67, 63–67, doi: 10.1190/1.1451337.
    https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1451337 [Google Scholar]
  23. Wiggins, R., Kenny, G.S. and McClure, C.D. [1983]. A method for determining and displaying the shear-velocity reflectivities of a geologic formation. European Patent Application. 0113944.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Xu, S. and Payne, M.A. [2009]. Modeling elastic properties in carbonate rocks. The Leading Edge, 28, 66–74, doi: 10.1190/1.3064148.
    https://doi.org/10.1190/1.3064148 [Google Scholar]
  25. Zhen-Ming, P., Ya-Lin, L., Sheng-Hong, W., Zhen-Hua, H. and Yong-Jun, Z. [2008]. Discriminating gas and water using multi-angle extended elastic impedance inversion in carbonate reservoirs. Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 51, 639–644, doi: 10.1002/cjg2.v51.3.
    https://doi.org/10.1002/cjg2.v51.3 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error