1887
Volume 4 Number 2
  • ISSN: 1569-4445
  • E-ISSN: 1873-0604

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Steep‐dipping fracture zones are generally difficult to delineate using traditional ground‐penetrating radar (georadar) techniques. Evidence for their presence in standard georadar images may be either completely absent or limited to diffractions and/or chaotic reflection patterns. To address this issue, we present a novel three‐dimensional (3D) migration scheme based on computations of semblance. This new approach, which accounts for undulating surface topography, emphasizes diffractors while markedly reducing the effects of specular reflectors. After demonstrating the efficiency of the technique on 3D synthetic data, we apply it to a 3D georadar data set acquired across an unstable mountain slope in the Swiss Alps. This region is characterized by rugged topography and numerous shallow‐ to steep‐dipping fracture zones and faults. Only the shallow‐ to moderate‐dipping structures are imaged as reflectors in conventionally migrated versions of the georadar data. Our semblance‐based topographic migration (SBTM) scheme produces a 3D volume containing clouds of high‐semblance values. Application of morphology image processing to these clouds reveals the presence of geologically meaningful structures, most of which are very steeply dipping (>75°). Several of the steep‐dipping structures project to open fracture zones and associated lineaments at the surface, thus demonstrating the capability of the combined SBTM and morphology procedure for mapping near‐vertical fracture zones.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.3997/1873-0604.2005034
2005-05-01
2020-04-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. AlliG., BonoperaC., SarriA., PinelliG. and De PasqualeG.2004. Data processing for mine‐detection polarimetric Ground Penetrating Radar array.10th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Delft, The Netherlands, Expanded Abstracts, 669–672.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. DerobertX. and AbrahamO.2000. GPR and seismic imaging in a gypsum quarry.Journal of Applied Geophysics45, 157–169.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. EnghetaN., PapasC.H. and ElachiC.1982. Radiation pattern of interfacial dipole antennas.Radio Science17, 1557–1566.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. GrandjeanG. and GourryJ.C.1996. GPR data processing for 3D fracture in a marble quarry (Thassos, Greece).Journal of Applied Geophysics36, 19–30.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. GrasmueckM.1996. 3D ground penetration radar applied to fracture imaging in gneiss.Geophysics61, 1050–1064.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. GrossR., GreenA.G., HolligerK., HorstmeyerH. and BaldwinJ.2002. Shallow geometry and displacements on the San Andreas Fault near Point Arena based on trenching and 3D georadar surveying.Geophysical Research Letters29(20), 34-1–34-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. HeinckeB., GreenA.G., van der KrukJ. and HorstmeyerH.2005. Acquisition and processing strategies for 3D georadar surveying a region characterized by rugged topography.Geophysics, 70, K53–K61.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. HollowayA.L.1992. Fracture mapping in granite rock using ground probing radar. In: Ground Penetrating Radar (ed. J.A.Pilon ), pp. 85–98. Geological Survey of Canada.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. LandaE. and KeydarS.1998. Seismic monitoring of diffraction images for detection of local heterogeneities.Geophysics63, 1093–1100.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. LehmannF. and GreenA.G.1999. Semiautomated georadar data acquisition in three dimensions.Geophysics64, 719–731.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. LehmannF. and GreenA.G.2000. Topographic migration of georadar data: Implications for acquisition and processing.Geophysics65, 836–848.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. LualdiM. and ZanziL.2004. 2D and 3D experiments to explore the potential benefit of GPR investigations in planning the mining activity of a limestone quarry. 10th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, Delft, The Netherlands, Expanded Abstracts, 613–616.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. MarfurtK.J., KirlinR.L., FarmerS.L. and BahorichM.S.1998. 3D seismic attributes using a semblance‐based coherency algorithm.Geophysics631150–1165.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. MüllerC.2000. On the nature of scattering from the isolated perturbations in elastic media and the consequence for processing of seismic data. Ph.D. thesis, University of Kiel.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. NeidellN.S. and TanerM.T.1971. Semblance and other coherency measures for multichannel data.Geophysics36, 482–497.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. PipanM., ForteE., GuangyouF. and FinettiI.2003. High resolution GPR imaging and joint characterization in limestone.Near Surface Geophysics1, 39–55.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. PrattW.K.2001. Digital Image Processing. Wiley-Interscience Publication.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. SchneiderW. A. 1978. Integral formulation for migration in two and three dimensions. Geophysics43, 49–76.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. SeolS. J., KimJ.-H., SongY. and ChungS.-H.2001. Finding the strike direction of fractures using GPR. Geophysical Prospecting49, 300–308.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. SkolnikI. S.1980. Introduction to Radar Systems. McGraw–Hill International Editions.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. TanerM.T. and KoehlerF.1969. Velocity spectra‐digital computer derivation and applications of velocity functions. Geophysics34, 859–881.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. TronickeJ., VillamorP. and GreenA.G.2004. Detailed shallow geometry and vertical displacement estimates of the Maleme Fault Zone, New Zealand, using 2D and 3D georadar.Near Surface Geophysics, June, 4–3, page numbers unknown.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. TsofliasG.P., van GestelJ., StoffaP.L., BlankenshipD.D. and SenM.2004. Vertical fracture detection by exploiting the polarization properties of ground‐penetrating radar signals.Geophysics69, 803–810.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. WillenbergH.2004. Geologic and kinematic model of a complex landslide in crystalline rock (Randa, Switzland). Ph.D. thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. WillenbergH., SpillmannT., EberhardtE., EvansK., LoewS. and MaurerH.R.2002. Multidisciplinary monitoring of progressive failure processes in brittle rock slopes – concepts and system design. 1st European Conference on Landslides, Prague, Czech Republic, Expanded Abstracts, 477–483.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. YoungR.A., Deng.Z., MarfurtK.J. and NissenS.E.1997. 3D dip filtering and coherence applied to GPR data: A study.The Leading Edge16, 921–928.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.3997/1873-0604.2005034
Loading
/content/journals/10.3997/1873-0604.2005034
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error