1887
Volume 16 Number 2
  • ISSN: 1569-4445
  • E-ISSN: 1873-0604

Abstract

ABSTRACT

This paper is focused on the measurement of both dielectric and magnetic characteristics of a penetrable material at radio frequency through a time‐domain reflectometry probe. The goal is to prove that a time‐domain reflectometry probe can offer the possibility to discriminate the dielectric permittivity from the magnetic permeability of the material. This is due to the fact that the time‐domain reflectometry datum depends both on the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic waves in the probed medium and on the intrinsic impedance of the probe. However, the possibility to attain such a clear discrimination is bound by the condition that the reflection coefficient is measured (or calculated) along the probe at the air–soil interface in the frequency domain. Generally, time‐domain reflectometry probes measure the total (incident plus reflected) field in the time domain, and subsequently, the datum is needed to meet the condition that such claimed purpose is not just the Fourier transform of a datum collected by means of a common time‐domain reflectometry probe. Rather, either a devoted hardware should be implemented or a very accurate knowledge of the incident field should be guaranteed in order to separate the reflected wave from the incident one. In this preliminary work, our study has been restricted to a theoretical investigation in the frequency domain. In particular, our focus is set on the lossless case, and the attention is devoted to the issue of possible multiple solutions to demonstrate that this obstacle can be overcome by making the frequency step narrower or, alternatively, by narrowing the length step of the probe. Simulation results based on a bifilar transmission line model are shown.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.3997/1873-0604.2017046
2017-08-01
2020-04-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. CassidyN.J.2007. Frequency‐dependent attenuation and velocity characteristics of magnetically lossy materials.4th International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar, pp. 142–146. IEEE.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. CassidyN.J.2009. Electrical and magnetic properties of rocks, soils and fluids. In: Ground Penetrating Radar’ Theory and Applications, Chapter 2.Elsevier.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. CataldoA., CatarinucciL., TarriconeL., AttivissimoF. and TrottaA.2007. A frequency‐domain method for extending TDR performance in quality determination of fluids.Measurement Science and Technology18, 675–688.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. CataldoA., De BenedettoE. and CannazzaG.2011. Broadband Reflectometry for Enhanced Diagnostics and Monitoring Applications. Springer‐Verlag.
  5. CataldoA., PersicoR., LeucciG., De BenedettoE., CannazzaG., MateraL. et al. 2014. Time domain reflectometry, ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography: a comparative analysis of alternative approaches for leak detection in underground pipes.NDT & E International62, 14–28.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. FranceschettiG.1997. Electromagnetics: Theory, Techniques and Engineering Paradigms. New York, NY: Plenum Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. GhodgaonkarD.K., VaradanV.V. and VaradanK.V.1990. Free‐space measurement of complex permittivity and complex permeability of magnetic materials at microwave frequencies.IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement39(2), 387–394.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. GrimmR.E. and StillmanD.E.2009. Comment on “Subsurface water detection on Mars by astronauts using a seismic refraction method: Tests during a manned Mars simulation” by V.Pletser et al. Acta Astronautica64(5), 654–655.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. KatoY., SugimotoS., ShinoharaK., TezukaN., KagotaniT. and InomataK.2002. Magnetic properties and microwave absorption properties of polymer‐protected cobalt nanoparticles.Material Transactions43(3), 406–409.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. LannuttiE., LenzanoM., BarónG.J. and LenzanoL.E.2017. Using ground‐penetrating radar to investigate the internal structure of Puente del Inca, Mendoza, Argentina.Near Surface Geophysics.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. LuukkonenO., MaslovskiS.I. and TretyakovS.A.2011. A stepwise Nicolson–Ross–Weir‐based material parameter extraction method.IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters10, 1295–1298.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. MatteiE., De SantisA., Di MatteoA., PettinelliE. and VannaroniG.2005. Time domain reflectometry of glass beads/magnetite mixtures: a time and frequency domain study.Applied Physics Letters86, 224102.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. NabighianM.1988. Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics. Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. NicolsonA.M. and RossG.F.1970. Measurement of the intrinsic properties of materials by time domain techniques.IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement19(4), 377–382.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. NoonD.A.1996. Stepped‐frequency radar design and signal processing enhances ground penetrating radar performance.PhD thesis, The University of Queensland, Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. PelletierM.G., SchwartzR.C., HoltG.A., WanjuraJ.D. and GreenT.R.2016. Frequency domain probe design for high frequency sensing of soil moisture.Agriculture6(60), 1–12.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. PersicoR., SoldovieriF. and PierriR.2002. Convergence properties of a quadratic approach to the inverse scattering problem.Journal of the Optical Society of America A19(12), 2424–2428.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. PersicoR. and PriscoG.2008. A reconfigurative approach for SF‐GPR prospecting.IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation56(8), 2673–2680.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. PersicoR. and SoldovieriF.2011. Two dimensional linear inverse scattering for dielectric and magnetic anomalies.Near Surface Geophysics9(3).
    [Google Scholar]
  20. PersicoR.2014. Introduction to Ground Penetrating Radar: Inverse Scattering and Data Processing. Wiley.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. PersicoR., DeiD., ParriniF. and MateraL.2016. Mitigation of narrowband interferences by means of a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system.Radio Science51.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. PettinelliE., VannaroniG., CeretiA., PisaniA.R., PaolucciF., Del VentoD. et al. 2005. Laboratory investigations into the electromagnetic properties of magnetite/silica mixtures as Martian soil simulants.Journal of Geophysical Research110, E04013.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. PozarD.2012. Microwave Engineering, 4th edn. Wiley.
  24. PicardiG., PlautJ.J., BiccariD., BombaciO., CalabreseD., CartacciM. et al. 2005. Radar soundings of the subsurface of Mars.Science310(5756), 1925–1928.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. SoldovieriF., PersicoR. and LeoneG.2005. Effect of source and receiver radiation characteristics in subsurface prospecting within the DBA.Radio Science40, RS3006.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. SoldovieriF., PriscoG. and PersicoR.2008. Application of microwave tomography in hydrogeophysics: some examples.Vadose Zone Journal7(1), 160–170.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Van DamR.L., HendrickxJ.M.H., CassidyN.J., NorthR.E., DoganM. and BorchersB.2013. Effects of magnetite on high‐frequency ground‐penetrating radar.Geophysics78(5), H1–H11.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. WeirW.B.1974. Automatic measurement of complex dielectric constant and permeability at microwave frequencies.Proceedings of the IEEE62, 33–36.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.3997/1873-0604.2017046
Loading
/content/journals/10.3997/1873-0604.2017046
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error