Many offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal<br>designs have been proposed by industry in the last several<br>years. Most base-load offshore LNG import terminals<br>currently under development utilize either a bottom-founded<br>structure, such as a gravity base or a jacket structure, or a<br>floating structure such as a moored ship-shape hull. In either<br>case, LNG transfer from the LNG carrier (LNGC) to the LNG<br>import terminal is performed through side-by-side offloading.<br>LNG transfer is accomplished with loading arms equipped<br>with constant motion swivels and a wire-guided connection<br>system. Side-by-side offloading has acceptable availability<br>for mild environmental conditions. However, when applied in<br>more severe environments, this type of LNG transfer system<br>can limit the terminal throughput because of low berthing and<br>offloading availability.


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