Flowback of proppant and formation sand often poses serious challenges to operating companies when these solids cause<br>equipment damage, costly and frequent cleanup treatments, and production decreases. These flowback problems are often<br>compounded in severity in wells with production of heavy oil and high water cuts. Once the proppant is produced out, there<br>is no mechanical means to keep the unconsolidated sand in the perforations or behind the casing in place. Similarly,<br>formation sand from the perforations not aligned with the propped fractures produces out freely during well production once<br>the proppant filling the perforation tunnels produces out.


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