Produced water volumes from E&P operations are on the rise world wide. This is generally due to premature water<br>production with oil in fractured reservoirs or due to mature fields undergoing a strong water drive or due to water<br>breakthrough from waterflooding. The management of produced water is an important part of cost effective field<br>development over the entire life cycle. However, all too often the economic impact of water production is not fully<br>realized until late in the field life when the cost of mitigating such high water volumes has become prohibitive.<br>What is needed is a better understanding, early in the field development stage, of the likely total cost of handling<br>produced water over the life of a field.


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