The Virtual Source method (VSM) has recently been proposed as a new practical approach to reduce distortions of seismic images caused by shallow heterogeneous overburden. VSM is demanding at the acquisition stage because it requires placing downhole geophones below the most complex part of the heterogeneous overburden. Where such acquisition is possible, however, it pays off later at the processing stage because it does not require knowledge of the velocity model above the downhole receivers. This paper demonstrates that VSM can be viewed as an application of the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral (KHI) with an experimentally measured Green’s function. Direct measurement of the Green’s function ensures the effectiveness of the method in highly heterogeneous subsurface conditions.


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