Advances in inexpensive data acquisition technology allow us to collect up to 256 channels<br>of data simultaneously at a total sampling rate of 100 kHz. With so many channels<br>available, it is possible to set up a two-dimensional (2D) receiver array for resistivity,<br>induced polarization (IP) and self-potential (SP) surveys. A 2D array would be best suited<br>for environmental and engineering applications, where the requirement for detail suggests<br>that measurements be taken at relatively dense station spacings in a small area, and the set<br>up procedure is thus relatively straightforward. One of the main questions for a 2D array is<br>the optimum location of the transmitter electrodes. This paper investigates this problem<br>with the use of 3D numerical modeling and with two field experiments. According to our<br>modeling and field experiment results, a gradient 2D array is the most efficient array for<br>resistivity and IP mapping. One set of transmitter electrodes could be enough to determine<br>the horizontal position of a target and the strike direction of a geological structure. In<br>addition, the 2D array also gives excellent SP data because it eliminates time-varying noise<br>from the measurements.


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