Seismic waveform inversion problems are naturally decomposed into two parts: determining the background velocity and the contrasts in material properties described by the high-frequency variations in impedance and Poisson's ratio. Seismic traveltimes are determined by the background velocity while the high-frequency variations in impedance and Poisson's ratio determine the reflection amplitudes. AVO studies which exploit changes in reflection amplitude as a function of incidence angle require as a prerequisite knowledge of the background velocity so that the correct reflection phases can be compared. For example, depending on the method employed either the offset vs. traveltime, ray parameter vs. intercept time, or depth vs. incidence angle trajectory must be known or taken into account through dynamic corrections to the data.


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