Surface waves have been extensively utilized to detect the properties of subsurface materials for geological inspections in many non-destructive testing methods, such as the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW). In recent years, these stationary measurement methods were also applied to concrete and pavement structures. Most of these implementations are still using contact sensors, such as accelerometers and geophones. The test efficiency is also significantly limited by the conventional inversion algorithms, which were established on the iterative forward analysis with trial solutions. These drawbacks don’t meet the challenges of fast inspection for highway pavements.


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