Mining in Monarch area exploited lenticular gold bearing quartz veins up to 400m long and 2m thick. These veins were emplaced along shears within a complex tectonic contact zone between the Francistown Tonalities and the Penhalonga Formation. The shears were localised by inclusions of altered schist within the tonalite. The shears extend some 1500m along a northerly trending strike, dipping steeply to the west. Subsidiary shears trending north-north-east and northwest are also mineralised and the highest grades are found where these intersect with the main zone. The wall-rock hosting the veins also has impregnations of carbonate and sulphide, and typically contains fine-grained biotite (or stilpnomelane) which imparts a brownish hue to the altered zones.


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