The aim of this study is to determine the advantages and limitations of different misfit functions for an application of Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) to surface waves. The difference-based L2 norm, classically used in FWI and sensitive to both amplitude and phase information, suffers from cycle-skipping and local minima. For slow surface waves propagating in the low velocity near surface, the problem of cycle-skipping is even greater due to their small wavelengths. In the absence of low frequencies, convergence may not be possible when starting from a smooth initial mode. Alternative misfit functions applied in various data domains are therefore investigated with the aim of overcoming this issue. Taking the difference-based L2 norm as a basis for comparison, simple synthetic tests are conducted to evaluate a weighted cross-correlation and a singular value decomposition approach as alternative misfit functions, as well as investigating the effect of calculating the residual in different data domains such as the (omega-k), (tau-p) and (omega-p) domains.


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