The advent of modern computing has made it possible to do seismic imaging using least-squares reverse-time migration. We obtain superior images by solving an optimization problem that recovers the true-amplitude images. However, its success hinges on overcoming several issues, including overwhelming problem size, unknown source wavelet, and interfering coherent events like multiples. In this abstract, we reduce the problem size by using ideas from compressive sensing, and estimate source wavelet by generalized variable projection. We also demonstrate how to invert for subsurface information encoded in surface-related multiples by incorporating the free-surface operator as an areal source in reverse-time migration. With multiples we can remove the amplitude ambiguity in wavelet estimation. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method with synthetic examples.


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