We developed a time-lapse inversion using new cross-model constraints based on change ratio and resolution of model parameters. The cross-model constraint based on change ratio imposes the same penalty on the model parameters with equal change ratio. This constraint can emphasize the model parameters with significant change regardless of their increase or decrease. The resolution cross-model constraint imposes a small penalty on the model parameters with poor resolution, but a large penalty on the model parameters with good resolution. Thus, the model parameter with poor resolution can be effectively identified in the inversion result if they are significantly changed with time. Through the numerical tests for 3D resistivity monitoring data sets, the performance of these two cross-model constraints was confirmed. Finally, for the safety estimation of a sea dyke, we applied the developed time-lapse inversion to the 3D resistivity monitoring data that were acquired at a sea dike located in a western coastal area of Korea. The result of time-lapse inversion suggested that there were no significant changes at the sea dike during the monitoring period.


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