The study of industrial disturbances was focused on “static” sources made of iron and reinforced concrete (e.g. water pipes, stakes), and “active” or electromagnetic-field producing elements (e.g. electrical power lines, generators and geophysical equipment). The measurements and forward modeling provided the patterns and main parameters (amplitudes, gradient and blind-zone sizes) for magnetic anomalies of static disturbances. Forward modeling was also applied to an analysis of the demagnetization effect of highly magnetic objects and the  threshold, the latter being the rate at which the anomaly amplitude increases when that of the  values begins to slow down. The disturbig effect introduced by a non-stable electromagnetic field cannot be eliminated by single-sensor magnetometer measurements but can be suppressed by the use of a gradiometer survey.


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