At the Penn West pilot project, 100 km southwest of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, CO2 is being injected into the Cretaceous Cardium Formation in the Pembina Oil Field for enhanced recovery and carbon sequestration purposes. The reservoir is being monitored using passive seismic borehole array. Additional active seismic surveys are periodically performed to obtain time-lapse seismic images. A passive seismic array was installed on production tubing, along with fluid samples ports and pressure temperature sensors. Borehole geophones are used in combination surface three-component geophones to obtain sparse, 4D, multicomponent surveys of the study area. To date, the repeat active seismic surveys show indication of reservoir changes as a result of the CO2 injection. Passive seismic monitoring is ongoing, but has yet to yield any measurable levels of seismicity generated by the CO2 flood.


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