Based upon current experience with large PMM systems being deployed in North America, North Africa and the Gulf the authors review the factors which should be considered when designing PMM systems for various types of reservoir monitoring applications. Using specific examples of PMM systems designed to monitor heavy oil production is North America, CO2 sequestration in North Africa, and production optimization in Saudi Arabia the key factors influencing the design and operational characteristics of cost effective PMM systems are reviewed. The paper concludes with a review of the features which will be incorporated in different types of PMM systems in the near future.


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