Although conventional geothermal systems have been successfully exploited for electrical<br>production and district heating in many parts of the world, exploration and development of<br>new systems is commonly stymied by the risk of unsuccessful drilling. Problems include<br>drilling of hot, relatively dry wells with low flow rates, decreasing temperatures with depth as<br>wells penetrate relatively thin and shallow geothermal aquifers (overturn), and wells with<br>reasonable flow rates but relatively low temperatures. Due to the high cost of drilling, such<br>problems can effectively preclude geothermal exploration. Proposals to generate enhanced<br>geothermal systems (EGS) by artificially stimulating hot dry wells, commonly through<br>mechanical hydro-fracturing of rocks, have therefore gained in popularity.


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