Faults that develop in recently deposited sediments, especially those in water-logged submarine sediments, are mechanically different fiom those in more deeply buried cemented rock. Many of these faults form due to gravity flow processes such as the instability at the toes of prograding delta fronts. In a heterolithic sand and clay-rich section both sands and shales smear into the fault zone with fault displacement. Predictive methods for determining the distribution of fault rocks across the fault surface in soft sediments must consider the effects of both the clay and sand smear in the fault zone.


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