Prior to excavation in soil and rock, it is useful to know the subsurface structures and to know whether parts of the subsurface might be potentially troublesome or of different character than previously assumed. A case study for the near surface (0-20 m) application of borehole radar to groundwater and environmental problems is described. Surveys were performed with transmitter and receiver locations in cross-borehole configurations in the boreholes for the detection of soil and groundwater contaminations by organic compounds. The purpose of this work is to determine how electromagnetic tomography in its various aspects can be used to characterize light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) in the subsurface.


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