This study presents a three-dimensional (3D) marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) modeling algorithm using primary fields for a homogeneous half-space to accurately account for airwave effects. This algorithm is validated with analytic solutions for 1D two- and four-layer models and numerical results from another 3D model. Using this code, we investigate the 3D EM responses of a 100 m thick, 5 km disk-shaped hydrocarbon reservoir buried at a depth of 1 km below the seafloor. From the numerical results, we can recognize that a 3D effect of the reservoir typically produces a transition zone in comparison with 1D model responses.


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