The technique of Finite Difference Modeling is a powerful tool that is capable of handling the most general velocity models and can simulate most all aspcets of wave propagation: from basic reflections and diffractions, to ground roll, multiples; surface scattering, statics, refractions, and even tunneling. Figure 1 shows a variety of these aspcets of wave propagation using a snapshot of finite difference modeling through a complex velocity model. In recent years, finite difference modelling has proved invaluable to researchers and processors for testing software on realistic data from known subsurface models. This vesting capability has played an especially significant role in the development of pre-stack depth migration methods for imaging in complex structures. Other uses include testing of multiple and surface wave attenuation methods, AVO applications, stratigraphic signature analysis, and acquisition geometrics.


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