This paper presents a field case study of conformance engineering efforts completed in the West Sak field throughout the past eight years. The West Sak field is a shallow viscous oil reservoir with poorly consolidated sand that has been under waterflood since 1998. Because of the nature of the formation and the completion techniques used, the field has experienced some severe conformance issues. Conformance candidate identification and selection criteria are reviewed followed by an overview of additional problem characterization efforts. A variety of solution designs considered and attempted are discussed with a summary of lessons learned from both failures and successes during this effort. This review discusses treatments that range from pumping graded CaCO3, molten wax, special cement blends, and, finally, preformed particle gels (PPGs) or water swelling polymer (WSP) crystals. A majority of these treatments were executed on horizontal wells, which required adjustments for some challenging placement control dynamics. A review of the efforts to control those placement dynamics is presented, discussing some potential problems associated with that control. The principle objective of this work was the elimination of open channels connecting water injection wells with oil producers. This connection eliminated matrix flow between the wells and threatened secondary recovery potential. Ultimately, the evolution of current solution treatments is provided with a brief benefit summary of the overall performance of this effort.


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