Time–lapse 3D surface seismic monitoring at the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site has provided time-lapse images of the spreading plume, which has been interpreted as being caused by fluid saturation changes only. The integration of seismic AVO/AVA modeling and petrophysical experiments on core samples from the Ketzin reservoir support the interpretation of the field data by demonstrating that pressure has a rather minor impact on the seismic amplitudes at the Ketzin site. In this study Amplitude Variation with Offset (AVO) analysis has been applied to the baseline and the latest 3D repeat data set to investigate the real AVO response from the top of the sandstone reservoir after the injection of ∼ 61 kT of CO2. The results show a good agreement with the modeling results, indicating that CO2 saturation effect dominates the time-lapse seismic signature.


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