Full waveform inversion (FWI) of seismic data has great potential to image the shallow subsurface, but the specific nature of the associated data sets requires that several problems be first addressed. One problem is the predominance of high-amplitude surface waves, which enforces changes primarily in the shallowest part of the subsurface model when matching observed and predicted data. A more uniform model update over the full depth range of interest can be obtained using Jacobian matrix scaling techniques. A further issue with FWI concerns the occurrence of local minima in the model space. We demonstrate the use of joint inversion of travel times and waveforms to alleviate this problem. Finally, we address the problem of variable source and receiver coupling and propose an estimation procedure that allows such variations to be accommodated and subsequently determined during the inversion.


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