1887

Abstract

Summary

The upward Ground Penetrating Radar (upGPR) permits to monitor in time lapse the snow properties using a single antenna or an array of several antennas, disposed on the soil and radiating upward (on the snow). Water Content Reflectometer (WCR) is a special TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer) system to monitor the electrical permittivity of soil and snow. We discuss the effectiveness of an integrated monitoring using an up-GPR with an antenna of 1500 MHz and WCR sensor on the snow and into the ground.

The data acquisition refers to the winter season 2014–15, in a test site of interest for monitoring and prediction of avalanche phenonema in the Italian alps, at elevation of 2.100 m a.s.l.

GPR data permit to monitor the different phases of snow accumulation and layering of the snowpack during the season, while the analisys of WCR data allow us to estimate with good accuracy density and water content of the snow. Particularly, the uppermost layers are characterized by density in the range between 250–300 kg/m3, while at deeper level, density values are around 400–450 kg/m3.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201413721
2015-09-06
2020-06-02
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Denoth, A.
    [1994] An electronic device for long-term snow wetness registration. Annales of Giaciology, 19, 104–106.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Hamelin, J., Mehl, J.B., Moldover, M.R.
    [1998] The static dielectric constant of liquid water between 275 K and 400 K near the saturated vapor pressure. International Journal of Thermophysics, 19, 1359–1380.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Keileners, T.J., Seyfred, M.S., Blonquist, J.M., Bilskie, J. and Chandler, D.G.
    [2005] Improved interpretation of water reflectometer measurements in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 69, 1684–1690.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Forte, E., Dossi, M., Colucci, R.R.,_Pipan, M.
    [2013] A new fast methodology to estimate the density of frozen materials by means of common offset GPR data. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 99, 135–145.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Godio, A.
    [2008] Performance and experimental evidence of GPR in density estimates of snowpack, Bollettino Geofisica Teorica Applicata, 49, 279–298.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. [2009] Georadar measurements for the Snow Cover Density. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 3, 414–423.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Godio, A. and Rege, R.B.
    [2015] The mechanical properties of snow and ice of an alpine glacier inferred by integrating seismic and GPR methods. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 115, DOI: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2015.02.017.
    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2015.02.017 [Google Scholar]
  8. Previati, M., Godio, A. and Ferraris, S.
    [2011] Validation of spatial variability of snowpack thickness and density obtained with GPR and TDR methods, Journal of Applied Geophysics, 75, 284–293.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Rege, R.B. and Godio, A.
    [2011] Multimodal inversion of guided waves in georadar data, Journal of Applied Geophysics, 81, 68–75.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Sihvola, A., Nyfors, E. and Tiuri, M.
    [1985] Mixing formulae and experimental results for the dielectric constant of snow. Journal of Giaciology, 31, 163–170.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Stein, J., Laberge, G. and Lèvesque, D.
    [1997] Monitoring the dry density and the liquid water content of snow using time domain reflectometry. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 25, 123–136.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201413721
Loading
/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201413721
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error