Pingos are oval dome-shaped hills that form in permafrost areas when the hydrostatic pressure of freezing groundwater causes the raising of frozen ground. One of the most famous and studied pingos is the Innerhytta pingo in Adventdalen, Svalbard Islands, with a giant icefall, testifying the significant fluid circulation in their correspondence. Its characteristics make it an ideal site for the seismic experiment of the Italy-Norway project IMPERVIA, aimed to define the inner structure of the pingo, and the ice-bound permafrost full thickness. Another task was to test the capabilities of near-surface seismic techniques in the severe Arctic environment, both in terms of sources and sensors, and of methodologies. The survey took place in spring 2014. We tested three sources (sledge-hammer, Seisgun, and firecrackers) evaluating their efficiency in terms of penetration and resolution, and 4.5 Hz and 14. Hz geophones and a 14 Hz mini-snow streamer. We acquired three intersecting lines, to enable an adequate tomographic analysis of the pingo structure, and we did two surface wave experiments along two of the lines. The data quality is good, allowing the recognition of several refracted and reflected events and a first topographic model of the velocity structure of the pingo.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Boaga, J., Vignoli, G. and Cassiani, G.
    [2011] Shear wave profiles from surface wave inversion: the impact of uncertainty on seismic site response analysis. J. Geophys. Eng., 8, 162, doi: 10.1088/1742‑2132/8/2/004.
    https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-2132/8/2/004 [Google Scholar]
  2. Böhm, G., Rossi, G. and Vesnaver, A.
    [1999] Minimum time ray-tracing for 3-D irregular grids. Journal of Seismic Exploration, 8, 117–131.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Christiansen, H.H., Etzelmüller, B., IsaksenK., Juliussen, H., Farbrot, H., Humlum, O., Johansson, M., Ingeman-Nielsen, T., Kristensen, L., Hjort, J., Holmlund, P., Sannel, A.B.K., Sigsgaard, C., Åkerman, H.J., Foged, N., Blikra, L.H., Pemosky, M.A. and Ødegård, R.
    [2010] The thermal state of permafrost in the Nordic area during IPY 2007–2009. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 21, 156–181.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Juliussen, H., Christiansen, H.H., Strand, G.S., Iversen, S., Midttømme, K. and Rønning, J.S.
    [2010] NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy. Earth System Science Data Discussions, 3, 27–54.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. OyeV., BraathenA. and PolomU.
    [2013] Preparing for CO2 storage at the Longyearbyen CO2 Lab: microseismic monitoring of injection tests. First Break, 31, 95–102.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Piper, D.J.W. and Porritt, C.J.
    [1966] Some pingos in Spitsbergen. Norsk Polarinstitutt Arbak1965.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ross, N., Brabham, P.J., Harris, C. and Christiansen, H.H.
    [2007] Internal Structure of Open System Pingos, Adventdalen, Svalbard: The Use of Resistivity Tomography to Assess Ground-ice Conditions. Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, 12, 113–126.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ross, N., Harris, C., Christiansen, H.H. and Brabham, P.
    [2005] Ground penetrating radar investigations of open system pingos, Adventalen, Svalbard. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift. Norwegian Journal of Geography, 59, 129–138.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Rossi, G., Gei, D., Böhm, G., Madrussani, G. and Carcione, J.M.
    [2007]. Attenuation tomography: an application to gas-hydrate and free-gas detection, Geophys. Prosp., 55, 655–669.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. van der Sluis, A. and van der Vorst, H.A.
    [1987] Numerical solution of large sparse linear algebraic systems arising from tomographic problems. In: Nolet, G. (Ed.) Seismic Tomography. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, 49–83.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Vesnaver, A., Böhm, G., Madrussani, G., Petersen, S. and Rossi, G.
    [1999] Tomographic imaging by reflected and refracted arrivals at the North Sea. Geophysics, 64, 1852–1862.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Vesnaver, A., Böhm, G., Madrussani, G., Rossi, G. and GranserH.
    [2000] Depth imaging and velocity calibration by 3D adaptive tomography. First Break, 18, 303–312.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error