The transmission of seismic energy through a sequence of layers consisting of unconsolidated material is by itself a challenging problem. The seismic pulse is known to broaden slightly with propagating distance, often described with a damping factor Q. In shallow sediments damping is very high compared to rocks, and should therefore show more pronounced effects of energy loss. One part of the losses can be described by viscoelastic losses, although viscosity is not the reality but is a way of giving a phenomenological description of damping. From a physical point of view, particles that can move in relation to each other seems to be more evident in unconsolidated or partly consolidated mediums like soils and other soft sedimentary formations.


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