Hydraulic fracturing is widely used to improve well productivity especially in unconventional reservoirs. This costly operation, however, sometimes underperforms. One of the main reasons for this poor performance is poor clean-up efficiency of injected fracturing fluid (FF).

In this work, a parametric study of FF clean-up efficiency of hydraulic fractured vertical wells was performed with 49152 simulations (in 12 sets) consisting of injection, soaking and production periods.

Due to the large number of required simulations, that were conducted using a commercial reservoir simulator, a developed computer code was used to automatically read input data, run simulations and creates output data. In each set (consisting of 4096 runs), simultaneous impacts of 12 parameters (fracture permeability, matrix permeability and capillary pressure, end points and exponents of Corey gas and FF relative permeability curve in both matrix and fracture)were studied. To sample the variables domain and analyse results, two-level full factorial experimental design and linear surface model describing dependency of gas production loss (GPL), compared to 100% clean-up, to pertinent parameters at three production periods (10, 30 and 365 days) were considered and supported by the tornado charts of fitted equations, frequency of simulations with given GPL and FF saturation maps.

Results indicate that generally parameters controlling FF mobility within fracture had greatest impact on GPL reduction. However in sets with very low matrix permeability especially when applied pressure drop during production is low, the effect of fluid mobility in the matrix on GPL is more pronounced, in other words, it is important how gas and FF flow within matrix rather than how fast fracture is cleaned. In tighter gas formations, generally more GPL and slower clean-up was observed. The effect of matrix capillary pressure on GPL reduction was more pronounced when drawdown was very low and/or soaking time was extended. This observation was more profound in tighter formations, i.e. for these formations, the effect of a change in drawdown and/or soaking time on matrix capillary pressure and GPL was more pronounced.

These findings can be used to make better decisions on the performance and optimised design of hydraulic fracturing, which is a costly but widely used stimulation technique for unconventional low permeability gas reservoirs.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Ahmed, U., Abou-Sayed, A. and Jones, A.
    , 1979. Experimental Evaluation of Fracturing Fluid Interaction with Tight Reservoir Rocks and Propped Fractures.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bazin, B. et al.
    , 2009. In Situ Water Blocking Measurements and Interpretation Related to Fracturing in tight gas reservoirs.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bennion, D., Thomas, F. and Bietz, R.
    , 1996. Water and hydrocarbon phase trapping in porous media-diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 35(10).
    [Google Scholar]
  4. CookeC., Jr
    , 1972. Conductivity of fracture proppants in multilayers, Esso Production Res Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. , 1974. Effect of fracturing fluids on fracture conductivity, Exxon Production Res Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gdanski, R., Fulton, D. and Shen, C.
    , 2006. Fracture Face Skin Evolution During Cleanup.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gdanski, R. and Walters, H.
    , 2010. Impact of Fracture Conductivity and Matrix Relative Permeability on Load Recovery.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ghahri, P., Jamiolahmady, M. and Sohrabi, M.
    , 2011. A Thorough Investigation of Cleanup Efficiency of Hydraulic Fractured Wells Using Response Surface Methodology, SPE 144114
    [Google Scholar]
  9. , 2009. Investigation of Cleanup Efficiency of Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Gas Condensate Reservoirs.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Jamiolahmady, M., Sohrabi, M., Ganesh, D. and Danesh, A.
    , 2007. Impact of fracture clean up on productivity of gas-condensate wells.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Jamiolahmady, M., Alajmi, E., Nasriani, H. R., Ghahri, P. and Pichestapong, K.
    , 2014. A Thorough Investigation of Clean-up Efficiency of Hydraulic Fractured Wells Using Statistical Approaches, SPE 170862.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Mahadevan, J. and Sharma, M.
    , 2005. Factors Affecting Clean-up of Water-Blocks: A Laboratory Investigation. SPE Journal, 10(3): 238–246.MATLAB Refrence Manual, 2010.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Montgomery, K. and Berthelot, J.
    , 1990. Effects of Fracture Fluid Invasion on Cleanup Behavior and Pressure Buildup Analysis.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Nasriani, H. R., Jamiolahmady, M. and Alajmi, E.
    , 2014. An Integrated Study of Cleanup Efficiency of Short Hydraulic Fractured Vertical Wells Using Response Surface Methodology, 76th EAGE Conference & Exhibition 2014.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Tannich, J.D.
    , 1975. Liquid Removal From Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells, Journal of Petroleum Technology, Volume 27, Number 11, Pages 1309–1317.
    [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error