We develop a 3D geological modelling procedure supported by the combination of helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data, seismic reflection data, and water well records for the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer system in Manitoba, Canada. Our procedure is an innovative hybrid of knowledge-driven and data-driven schemes that provides a clear protocol for incorporating different types of geophysical data into a 3D stratigraphic model framework. The limited spatial density of water well bedrock observations precludes detection of the buried valley bedrock topography and renders the water well records alone inadequate for accurate hydrogeological model building. The expert interpretation of the geophysical data allows for leveraging of a spatially extensive dataset with rich information content that would be otherwise difficult to utilize for lithostratigraphic classification.


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