Although 3D surface seismic imaging has been the primary tool for geophysical reservoir monitoring to date, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) has characteristics that make this technology an attractive proposition for time-lapse monitoring. However, 3D VSPs are not yet widely applied for time-lapse (4D) monitoring. To better understand the value of this technology as a potential 4D reservoir monitoring tool for a waterflood surveillance project, we conducted a comprehensive feasibility study. Through this study we have been able to compare and contrast 3D/4D VSP data processing capabilities of a few vendors in the industry.


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