A major issue in the application of waveform inversion methods to crosshole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data is the accurate estimation of the source wavelet. Here, we explore the viability and robustness of incorporating this step into a recently published time-domain inversion procedure through an iterative deconvolution approach. Our results indicate that, at least in non-dispersive electrical environments, such an approach provides remarkably accurate and robust estimates of the source wavelet even in the presence of strong heterogeneity of both the dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity. Our results also indicate that the proposed source wavelet estimation approach is relatively insensitive to ambient noise and to the phase characteristics of the starting wavelet. Finally, there appears to be little to no trade-off between the wavelet estimation and the tomographic imaging procedures.


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