The quality of receiver-to-ground coupling can be highly variable in surface, surface-to-borehole, and crosshole seismic experiments. Poor coupling can affect the recorded seismic traces in a major way, such that ignoring variable coupling conditions can lead to severe problems when waveform inversions are attempted. To address this issue, we have developed a novel scheme that estimates medium properties and frequency-dependent source functions and frequency-dependent receiver-coupling factors. We demonstrate the efficacy of the new scheme via a synthetic crosshole experiment in which realistic receiver-coupling factors are simulated. Our simulations indicate that a combined inversion for source functions, medium parameters and receiver coupling factors yields results that are comparable to those obtained by using known receiver coupling factors (of course, this is only possible for simulations) and inverting for the source functions and medium parameters.


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