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Abstract

We present four unique seismic acquisition methods pioneered inside BP between 2003 and 2006, taking them from concepts to field trials and to large scale implementation: 1) Multi-azimuth (MAZ) Streamer, acquiring 6 conventional surveys at 30 degree azimuth increments and stacking (Offshore Nile Delta example); 2) Wide Azimuth Towed Streamer (WATS), using a recording vessel plus two source vessels to obtain azimuthally diverse data in one pass (GOM example), 3) A regular grid of Autonomous Recording units (Nodes) placed on the seabed using a Remote Operating Vehicle (GOM example) 4) Permanent Seismic Surveillance Systems, trenched ocean bottom cables with continuous recording via fibre optic links to shore (Valhall, Norway example). The operational advantages and disadvantages and performance in practice are compared and contrasted. MAZ is simple and robust to apply in 70m+ deep water uncluttered by platforms. WATS is more complex to plan and process, but can be highly optimised given a velocity model and high end 3D acoustic modelling, and represents the premier solution for subsalt severe velocity anomalies. Nodes fill the wide azimuth niche when platforms and very deepwater are present which obstruct streamer access. Densely sampled Permanent Surveillance systems probably represent the reachable technical limit for seismic quality today, offering high fold, wide azimuth, excellent S/N and low frequency content at very low repeat costs and cycle times.

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/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.20147376
2007-02-26
2021-03-01
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http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.20147376
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